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Essay on Soil Pollution

Essay on Soil Pollution! Find high quality essays on ‘Soil Pollution’ for children, school and college students. These essays will also guide you to learn about the types, causes, severe effects, initiatives and preventive measures for soil pollution.

Soil pollution can be said to be the mixing together of chemicals that are made by man (like agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes and various waste disposals that are harmful from factories, houses, etc.) indirectly or directly into the soil that is natural that causes the degradation of land and also makes a particular piece of land unfit for cropping.

Therefore, there is a great need to look into the factors that lead to soil pollution and to identify measures to control it.

In order to educate students on this ecologically important topic we have come up with long essays for students which shall allow them to know more about soil pollution, how it is caused, what harm it has been doing to us and other life on the earth and finally the best can be done to minimise the effect of soil pollution.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for children, school students (Class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Standard) and college students. Furthermore, those students preparing for competitive exams like IAS, IPS and UPSC can also increase their knowledge by studying these essays.

List of Essays on Soil Pollution

Essay on Soil Pollution – Short Essay for Children (Essay 1 – 150 Words)


Soil pollution is the presence of toxic components in the soil that pose a threat to the soil and the ecosystem at large. The issue of soil pollution usually comes to view due to its effect on plant life. Soil pollution makes it impossible for plants to grow as they are meant to.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

Naturally, all types of soil contain some level of toxicity. But there are certain man-made acts that lead to an increased level of soil pollution. It includes chemical waste dumping, mining activities, the release of toxin into the atmosphere and many more. These acts and others introduce new compounds into our soil causing toxicity.

Prevention of Soil Pollution:

Below are some of the ways to prevent soil pollution from our lands:

1. Reduce the use of harmful substances in the environment.

2. Reduce the amount of waste dumping.

3. Reduce the use of plastic materials.


Our soil is an important part of the ecosystem as most of the food we consume comes from the soil. Thus, it is important that we keep it toxin free.

Essay on Soil Pollution (Essay 2 – 250 Words)


Adding any toxic substances to the environment is termed as pollution. Contamination of the naturally occurring pure soil with toxic substances is called soil pollution. Soil pollution is the major affecting factor of our environment in the present scenario. Affecting soils by using chemicals, non-biodegradable wastes, industrial effluents, and artificial fertilizers will result in soil pollution.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution is a great threat to human beings. Mindless human activities like improper farming methods, discharge of industrial waste directly on the soil, deforestation, dumping of non-degradable waste to the land, improper sewage systems etc., cause irreparable damage to the soil.

Effects of Soil pollution:

Soil pollution exerts irreversible and irreparable effects on the environment and its habitats.

1. Quality of soil gets reduced

2. Quality of crops grown becomes inferior

3. Affects human health

4. Causes serious destruction in the biodiversity and ecosystem

5. Harms the water bodies on earth

How to reduce soil pollution?

As the main cause of soil pollution is the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides by farmers, awareness should be made to farmers about the harmful effects of using them. Use of organic manure should be highly encouraged. Use of non-bio degradable substances should be strictly prohibited. Plastic use should be avoided. Disposal of these non-biodegradable wastes should be done very carefully.


The soil is one of the major resources that we depend on for everything and anything. If the soil is depleted of its purity and fertility, there can possibly a threat to the human race. Hence, it’s high time that we address on the issue on a serious note and educate people to avoid activities that pollute the soil.

Essay on Soil Pollution – Causes, Impact and Ways to Control (Essay 3 – 350 Words)


‘Soil Pollution’ is a term which may not been heard very frequently but having constant check on soil pollution is very important. Soil is the natural substance that covers the Earth’s surface and this soil becomes polluted when it loses its nutrients due to the mixing of other foreign elements like chemicals, wastes, pesticides etc.,

Causes for Soil Pollution:

Soil Pollution occurs due to various reasons:

1. Soil gets polluted when the chemical wastes from the industries and factories are dumped upon them.

2. Discharge of solid waste on land can also pollute soil.

3. Excess use of fertilizers can also cause soil pollution.

4. Use of inappropriate Insecticides, Pesticides and Herbicides can damage soil and cause soil pollution.

Impact of Soil Pollution:

Soil Pollution is a cause of concern because it does not only affect the crops but it impacts the entire eco-system. Human beings, plants, animals, insects, worms – all are impacted either directly or indirectly.

1. The first impact of soil pollution is that it takes away the essential nutrients from the soil and makes the soil useless for cultivation.

2. When the soil becomes polluted, it loses its firmness and soil erosion occurs.

3. There is reduction in crop yield and even if the crops and vegetables are cultivated in the polluted soil, they may be contaminated.

4. Soil pollution can pollute the water bodies also.

Ways to Control Soil Pollution:

Since it is not safe to use soil that is polluted, we have to find ways to control soil pollution from affecting our day-to-day lives.

1. Before disposing the industrial wastes in the soil, the toxicity of it must be reduced.

2. Farmers must ensure that they use bio-fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers.

3. Similarly, the farmers must opt for bio-pesticides and bio-fungicides. This may take long time to react but it is safe for the crops as well as for the soil.

4. Planting more trees helps in stopping soil erosion.


The health of a nation depends upon the purity of its soil. Let’s spread awareness and safeguard our soil from getting polluted.

Essay on Soil Pollution – For School Students (Class 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Standard) (Essay 4 – 400 Words)


Soil forms a part of the environment and its pollution affects the environment as a whole. Soil pollution is basically the contamination of soil through chemicals or any other alterations in the nature of soil. Soil pollution is caused mainly by agricultural activities through the use of chemicals and inorganic fertilizers. Soil pollution influences the environment because it will affect everything that grows and lives on the soil, including both plants and animals. Soil pollution results in other forms of pollution if the pollutants in soil are transferred e.g., to the water or air. Agriculture is highly dependent on soil and its pollution negatively affects agricultural activities.

Cause of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution results from exposure of soil to pollutants in different ways. Soil can be exposed to chemicals through agricultural activities such as spraying of pesticides, and application of inorganic fertilizers. Chemical content in pesticides and artificial fertilizers cause disruption of the nature of soil by either increasing alkalinity or acidity of soil.

Another form of soil pollution is industrial activities. Industries emit a lot of toxic chemicals and gases that end up in soil though the sewer systems. These industrial effluents also cause an increase in acidity or alkalinity of the soil.

Improper disposal of wastes in the environment results in the pollution of soil. Wastes including solids and liquids end up in the soil causing deposition of particles or chemicals that are harmful.

Impacts of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution has negatively affected the environment. The presence of pollutants in the soil causes an imbalanced pH for vegetation to grow. Lack of vegetation on the land predisposes to soil erosion and floods. In an event where crops grow on polluted soil, they will have the chemicals within them, which will result in harmful effects upon consumption by humans or animals. Most of the chemicals are harmful to human and animal health and that is why soil pollution is a danger. The economy will be compromised by soil pollution because there will be a drop in agricultural productivity and quality.


In conclusion, soil pollution is an environmental issue that touches on all aspects of life. Soil pollution is causes by human activity, which can be controlled. Consequences of soil pollution are similar to those of other forms of pollution because the nature of pollutants are chemicals. Health of living things relies on a clean environment.

Essay on Soil Pollution – Long Essay (Essay 5 – 550 Words)

Soil pollution is one of the major threat faced by our world and the main reason behind this issue is human activities. Humans behave very irresponsibly when the fact comes to serving back to nature who provide us with many gifts and blessings.

The soil is the nature’s gift on which we live, walk, find the source for food, grow food, etc. But anything done in an excessive way becomes poisonous to the environment. Carefree use of soil has caused the increased soil pollution rate which eventually will make the land unusable and non-recyclable.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

One type of action that causes soil pollution is the excess use of fertilizers. The development in the field of agriculture to produce more amount of crops within the time limit without the crop getting affected by external and internal factors introduced the chemical fertilizers in the market. These chemical fertilizers used in an uncontrolled manner will eventually destroy the natural fertility of the soil and make it a wasteland over time thus causing soil pollution.

The same goes with the pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, etc. These chemically produced materials for keeping insects, and other small living beings away from the crop, living area, etc., are really harmful to our land. They gradually suck away all the goodness in the soil which results in the destruction and causes soil pollution.

Industrialization is another cause of soil pollution. The excessive production of industrial waste that gets disposed on land will make the soil inappropriate for further use as it will be contaminated with the chemicals from the waste. Not only wastes from factories but also the homes and the other biological wastes create soil pollution like plastics, unprocessed biological wastes, etc.

Not only physical wastes affect the soil and results in soil pollution but also the radioactive ones. The radiations from different industries and works like mining, nuclear energy processing, etc., are a major threat to the soil that causes soil pollution.

Soil erosion is a natural cause that results in soil pollution.This natural disaster washes away all the goodness in the soil and makes it a wasteland inappropriate for any kind of usage and also contaminates the soil with other wastes too.

Effects of Soil Pollution:

All these industrial, urban, radioactive and biological wastes thrown on soil without processing and management will cause soil pollution to a massive amount and threatens the life of the human, animal and other living beings who all depend on the land in one way or the other.

All these contaminations in the soil are eventually transformed into the crops, plants and other products we cultivate on the land. The chemicals from the wastes, radiations, etc., are absorbed by the roots and this chemically contaminated food is consumed by animal, birds, human, etc. This consumption will cause many types of diseases, physically and mentally, to the living race.

The chemically concentrated fertilizers and pesticides used for better production of crops is actually a curse to the living being eating them. Soil pollution due to this type of chemicals causes physical and mental disabilities in human. Even the new born child get affected by soil pollution making them grow disabled and retarded.

Soil pollution should be controlled and otherwise, every living being will be facing a big disaster that will eventually destroy everything once we had.

Essay on Soil Pollution – Causes and Health Effects (Essay 6 – 600 Words)


Soil pollution can be said to be the mixing together of chemicals that are made by man (like agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes and various waste disposals that are harmful from factories, houses, etc.) indirectly or directly into the soil that is natural that causes the degradation of land and also makes a particular piece of land unfit for cropping. Soil can also be said to be a resource on earth that is natural and supports directly plants’ life and the life of animals indirectly from the dawn of existence. Soil is one very complex but important substance that is available on the surface of the earth everywhere.

A soil can be useful in the growing of crops is called a productive soil. It is very important that our lands remain secure and safe and devoid of any form of impurity. It has become impossible to have a soil that is devoid of impurities as a result of technological advancement. Toxic substances that are released into the soil as a result of use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers, industrial wastes and insecticides pollute the soil and greatly affect the soil’s fertility negatively. The nutrients of a soil are depleted by soil pollution as a result of the presence of foreign elements that are undesirable in heavy concentration in the soil by chemicals.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

There are a lot of things that can cause soil pollution; some of them are highlighted below:

1. Road debris

2. Industrial accidents

3. Agrochemicals like fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides

4. Intensive farming

5. Acid rain

6. Storage tanks that are underground corroding

7. Accidental spills that occur during activities

8. Mining and other activities of heavy industries

9. Oil spills

10. Electronic waste disposal

11. Coal ash

12. Illegal dumping and landfill

13. Sewage discharge

14. Industrial waste discharge directly into soil

15. Nuclear waste disposal

16. Fuel and oil dumping

17. War agents like chemical agents and ammunition

18. Drainage of surface water that is contaminated into soil

Health Effects of Soil Pollution:

Soil that is polluted or contaminated affects the health of human directly. When there is a contact directly with the soil or through inhaling of the vaporized soil contaminants a greater threat is posed through soil contamination infiltrating into the groundwater aquifers that are used by humans for consumption. Some of the effects of soil pollution on health include skin rash, eye irritation, fatigue, nausea, headache, liver conditions, kidney problems and leukaemia.


Soil pollution is the lowering of the quality of soil through the different natural processes and man’s actions that makes the soil not fit for the production of crops. Soil pollution is being caused to a large extent by the population of humans that is increasing and also the advancement in the lives of humans. The major causes of the pollution of soil are forest fires, soil erosion that is excessive, pesticides (herbicides and insecticides), chemical fertilizers, biocides, deforestation, over irrigation, water logging, water irrigation that is untreated, drought, leaching, industrial and urban waste, etc.

Studies have shown that soil pollution is increasing at a very alarming rate in urban and rural areas alike. Research has shown that the amount of fertilizers (chemicals) that is used by farmers have increased by about five million tons between 1980 and 1981 and by about eighteen million tons between 1990 and 2000 in a bid to increase the production of crops. These chemicals that are toxic get into the body of human from the food chain bringing harm through the cause of physical deformities and defect of neural tubes in babies that are new born.

Essay on Soil Pollution – For College and University Students (Essay 7 – 750 Words)


Soil pollution is a very big challenge for our environment today. The soil is the weathering of outside layers of earth over the eras which support the diversity of tiny and macroscopic forms of life but soil pollution is easily contaminating the soil these days.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution is also known as soil contamination that happens when impurities inside the soil decreases its quality.

The following are the numerous causes of soil pollution:

i. Industrial Pollution:

Inappropriate discarding of industrial chemical waste results in soil pollution. The disposal of heavy metals, oil and fuel dumping, industrial waste, acid deposition, and toxic chemicals results in the contamination of soil.

ii. Usage of Inorganic Manures:

Extreme usage of inorganic nitrogen manures inside the system of agriculture is also linked to soil pollution, partially through the procedure of nitrification.

iii. Poor Irrigation Practice:

The major cause of soil pollution is the poor practice of irrigation. When you over-water the land, it results in the water table’s increased level that leads to higher capillary action. Likewise, poor care of irrigation waterways and channels can lead to water leakage inside the neighbouring agricultural land. Moreover, the lack of crop rotation as well as intensive farming can also have an adverse effect on the soil’s quality after some time.

iv. Urban Activities:

It includes the inappropriate waste discarding and construction of buildings that result in soil pollution by inhibiting the right water drainage. The animal compost and human sewage can contaminate the soil by altering its chemical composition.

Severe Effects of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution is quite a severe issue that has numerous negative influences on the environment and the soil itself, like:

i. Poor Crop Productivity:

The more usage of chemical fertilizers, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides have ultimately reduced the fertility of soil at a rapid pace. The decreased quality of soil results in poor crop productivity too as due to heavy soil pollution the soil become less useful for developing crops.

ii. Unstable Chemical Composition:

Diverse kinds of soil naturally possess dissimilar chemical structures which are sensibly balanced. The arrival of contaminants like sulphides or mercury easily disrupts this equilibrium.

iii. Consequence on Environment and Biodiversity:

The soil pollution also results in the shortage of biodiversity in an environment. The existence of insect, bird, reptile species and mammals that survives inside the soil too get affected by the soil pollution as the soil is an essential habitat for them.

Preventative Measures for Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution might have a disturbing influence on the life of humans, plants, and animals and thus, some steps should be taken to stop this problem. The following are few valuable preventative measures that should be applied for preventing the soil pollution to a great extent:

i. Go Organic:

There should be more organic agriculture that utilizes much fewer pesticides and chemical fertilizers which ultimately stops the chemicals from seeping inside the soil.

ii. Community Awareness:

Making people aware of the negative impacts of soil pollution might benefit in preventing its occurrence.

iii. Correct Farming Methods:

Exploring the substitutes to pesticides and chemical fertilizers is a perfect approach to stop the soil pollution. In fact, there should be more encouragement to the mixed and rotational farming to avoid the contamination of soil.

iv. Discard Household Waste Sensibly:

The recycling of the waste material instead of dumping it inside landfill will also avoid the soil pollution. In order to make the soil free of hazardous substances, nobody should throw the electrical items and batteries into dustbins of home.

v. Manage or Stop Industrial Waste:

The right management of domestic and industrial waste will also help in preventing the problem of soil erosion. The treatment of solid waste is also one of the useful preventive measures. In fact, the right methods of waste disposal will make sure that industrial waste is not contaminating our valuable soil.


Soil pollution is mostly caused by improper human activity. Today, lot of human beings are rapidly discarding the harmful waste and also utilizing the damaging agricultural chemicals (like fertilizers or pesticides) that quite easily soak inside the land. It not only results in soil pollution but also harms the biodiversity.

The conservation of our environment is significant and the prevention of soil erosion will result in a healthier and cleaner planet for us. If we want to make our coming generation happy and healthy in future then, we should start taking some remedial steps for stopping the soil erosion from today. It is not helpful for humans but it is also beneficial for the existence of beautiful spices of animals and plants on the earth.

Essay on Soil Pollution – For IAS, IPS, UPSC and Other Competitive Exams (Essay 8 – 1000 Words)

Soil pollution is the state of the soil when it is contaminated with the presence of harmful substances which can pose a threat to the various forms of life on the earth. All soils, regardless of whether contaminated or unpolluted, contain some amount of contaminants which are normally present. Such contaminants include metals, inorganic particles and salts such as phosphates, carbonates, sulphates, nitrates etc., and numerous natural compounds such as lipids, proteins, DNA, unsaturated fats, hydrocarbons, PAHs, alcohols, and so on.

The decay of creatures including plants and animals and soil microbial action usually result in the formation of these contaminants. Furthermore, different contaminants get into the soil from the environment, for example with precipitation water, and by wind movement or different sorts of soil unsettling influences, and from surface water bodies and shallow groundwater moving through the dirt. At the point when the measures of soil contaminants surpass commonly accepted dimensions as compared to what is normally present in different soil, we term it as soil pollution.

Types of Soil Pollution:

There are two types of pollutants in the soil, namely natural pollutants and pollutants added due to human activities. Natural Pollutants include organic compounds and inorganic particles resulting from natural activities such as the decay of animals and plants. However, these pollutants are not a cause of worry and in fact, they replenish the soil of their nutrients. The other category is man-made pollutants. Man-made pollutants include chemical waste from the industries, oil and fuel dumping, nuclear waste, landfills and illegal dumping, coal ash and other such wastes that originate from human activities and are discharged in the soil without being treated. The most common sources of these pollutants are pesticides, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

Man-made pollutants are the major cause of soil pollution. Such pollutants come from various sources such as agriculture, industries and casual approach of humans towards the importance of soil. Some of the pollutants are spread in large volumes and hence are a cause of concern. For instance, there is rampant use of pesticides in agriculture today. However, that was not the case until a few years ago. Prior to World War II, the synthetic nicotine concoction present in the tobacco plants was utilized as the bug controlling substance in horticultural practices.

In any case, DDT was observed to be helpful for jungle fever control and as a nuisance controller of numerous creepy crawlies during World War II. Along these lines, it was utilized for controlling numerous illnesses. Subsequently, post-war, individuals began utilizing it as a nuisance controller in agribusiness for executing rodents, weeds, creepy crawlies, and so forth and for maintaining a strategic distance from the harms because of these vermin. However, slowly people recognised the harmful effects it has on the soil and hence it has been banned in many countries as on today’s date including India. But, the damage to the soil has already been done.

Similarly, the erroneous method for disposal of industrial waste from various sorts of industries causes soil pollution. Human exercises like this have prompted pollution of soil because of the transfer of mechanical waste, substantial metals, poisonous synthetic concoctions, dumping oil and fuel, and so on.

Additionally, dispersal of solid waste in the soil is another major cause of soil pollution. Transfer of plastics, jars, and other strong waste along with the transfer of electrical products, for example, batteries causes an antagonistic impact on the soil because of the harmful chemicals present in them.

Effects of Soil Pollution:

Soil pollution is a global problem and is not just restricted to India. The contamination of soil has had a severe impact on the quality of crops as the roots of the crops are not able to absorb proper nutrients from the soil due to the presence of contaminants. This has made the soil less productive in many parts of the country and efforts are on to replenish the soil of its nutrients.

Another direct impact of soil pollution on human health is the onset of various diseases due to our contact with the pollutants of the soil. For instance, the areas where soil pollution is high have recorded an increase in respiratory problems especially in children along with skin infection and even skin cancer.

Soil pollution leads to an increase in water pollution levels as well. This is because the contaminants of the soil near the rivers or other water bodies lead to the contaminants being mixed with the flowing water of rives, thereby polluting it. Soil pollution affects the ecosystem at large as it affects the survival of other species as well.

Initiatives by the Government:

The control of soil pollution should be a serious concern for all. Some efforts have been initiated by the Government of India in order to educate people on the importance of cleanliness which in its own terms is vital to reduce soil pollution. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is one such mission through which the Government has been educating people not to contaminate the soil by throwing solid waste and keep the surroundings clean for a healthy life for all. A regular sprinkling of water on roads is done in order to prevent soil erosion.

The Solution Ahead:

It is not the duty of the government alone to initiate steps to reduce soil pollution. Each one of us can do our bit to support the government in this project. For instance, we must ensure that we throw garbage on the designated spots only and not on roads. Similarly, industries should ensure proper disposal of their waste in accordance with the laws of the country.

Increased use of renewable energy sources such as solar energy is another step which can help in reducing soil pollution. We must ensure that we have more plants and trees around us and should nourish them regularly with water and manure. Trees are very important to bind the soil and hence prevent soil erosion. Last, but not the least, educating people on the ill effects of soil pollution and encouraging them to change their habits for the betterment of the ecosystem as well as of our country, is the best method to reduce soil pollution.

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