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Essay on Air Pollution

Essay on Air Pollution! Find high quality essays on ‘Air Pollution’ especially written for school, college and university students. These essays will also guide you to learn about the causes, effects and prevention of air pollution.

Air pollution is the process of releasing any toxic particles into the air that lowers its quality. The presence of harmful chemicals and other substances in the air, which lead to various types of damage to living beings and other flora and fauna is called air pollution.

The essays for the students, prepared by us will be able to provide an insight into this issue. Moreover, the essays are written in simple language which will be beneficial for students of all classes.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for kids, children and school students (Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10). Furthermore, those students preparing for IAS, IPS, UPSC, Civil Services and other competitive exams can also increase their knowledge by studying these essays.

List of Essays on Air Pollution

Essay on Air Pollution – Facts (Essay 1 – 150 Words)


Air Pollution is the presence of hazardous and harmful chemicals and gases in the air that makes the atmospheric air unfit for routine purposes by plants and animals. The changes, which can be physical, chemical or biological, in the nature of the air, deteriorate the quality of the biotic lives in the environment.


There are many causes of air pollution. The human activities are the first and the only cause of environmental pollution of any form. Anything that we do by burning of any material, be it household items or the industrial chemicals, release harmful gases causing air pollution. The road traffic that produces a large amount of dust, the usage of refrigerators and coolers that release hydrofluorocarbons into the atmosphere cause air pollution. Another major source of air pollution is the industries.


Air pollution causes respiratory problems, cancers, and cardiovascular problems in humans. Children can suffer from diseases like pneumonia and asthma. The environment suffers global warming because of which there are climatic alterations and weather change. Acid rain is another effect due to which the agricultural lands lose their fertility. Animals as well face the brunt of air pollution and they shift their habitats from one place to other causing disturbances in the ecosystems.


There are many attempts made at various levels in society to curb the causes of air pollution. Let us also be responsible for maintaining a safe environment.

Essay on Air Pollution – For Kids and Children (Essay 2 – 250 Words)

Air pollution is the process of releasing any toxic particles into the air that lowers its quality. These toxic particles are called pollutants. Some of them are natural, such as dirt, pollens, fog, sand, volcanic eruptions, etc. Whereas the examples of the man-made pollutants are smokes from industries and vehicles, combustion gases, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) from refrigerators, burning of coals, oils, and other fossil fuels, etc.

Tremendous cutting of trees and drastic growth rate in the industrialization sector have turned air pollution into the biggest problem for the human race. The consequences of the rapidly deteriorating air quality are clearly visible in the form of several profound damages.

Diseases like asthma, lung cancer, cancer, kidney and liver infections, etc., are repercussions of air pollution. Not only has it led to serious health problems for human beings but affected the wildlife as well. Many of the flora and fauna, especially the marine life, are becoming extinct due to the high contaminants present in the air.

The excessive sulfur present in the air gets mixed with the rain. As a result of this acid rain, the soil quality diminishes and the survival of the fishes, plants, and microorganisms becomes difficult. Air pollution also leads to deforestation, acid rains, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming.

Global steps are being taken to protect the environment. Planting more trees, switching to solar power, using public transport, opting for energy-efficient appliances, and developing an eco-friendly lifestyle are some of them.

Essay on Air Pollution – For School Students (Class 3, 4 and 5) (Essay 3 – 300 Words)


Air pollution is an environmental issue that negatively affects the ecosystem. Humans are wired to think about what happens to them in the current time and very few tend to think about the future. As industries, agro farms and human activity continue to contribute to air pollution, people are not affected immediately and therefore do not participate in control and prevention programs. Air is one of the most valuable gift from Mother Earth because all animate and inanimate objects on earth depend on it for survival. Without air, animals and humans would not have the privilege to breathe and plants would not have air exchange processes.

Future Effects of Air Pollution:

The future of human and animal life will be doomed by the increasing pollutants being released to the atmosphere. The accumulation of pollutants in the next ten years will have deleterious effects because a combination of toxic chemicals, radiations and harmful gases will have been accumulated. Climate change will be unnatural and dangerous, for e.g., the rise of sea level, intense global warming effects, and extreme of drought and storms. Would the earth be habitable with these crazy effects? When these extremities of climate change are reached, it would be irreversible. Food supply chain will also be adversely affected because plants will have toxins due to acid rain and therefore diseases and death will result from consumption of these toxins. The economy will be negatively affected because health will deteriorate as well as the quality of items for trade especially food crops.

Challenges in Prevention of Air Pollution:

Air pollution prevention programs are ineffective due to challenges. Finances are inadequate especially for developing countries to achieve the goals of air pollution prevention. The government and individuals lack the motivation due to misplaced priorities and policies.

Essay on Air Pollution – Causes (Essay 4 – 400 Words)

Air pollution is a major threat to today’s growing world. Every day the rate of air pollution in the atmosphere is getting to a higher rate. This is usually due to the pollutants released into the air through many human activities. It is important for the present generation to know the threat behind this situation and to control it before it destroys the atmosphere.

Causes of Air Pollution:

1. Industrialization:

Industrialization is one of the biggest reason behind the increased air pollution. Use of high chemical ingredients and fuel materials cause pollutants to merge in the atmosphere. These particulates released will highly contaminate the fresh air. These contaminations will form a thick layer over the earth’s surface that causes many hazardous situations.

2. Automobile:

The release of carbon monoxide is another undeniable reason for this atmospheric pollution. When the fuel gets burnt in vehicles they release harmful gases to the outer world, which in turn pollutes the whole air around. This wouldn’t have been a serious problem if the number of vehicles that release such harmful gases was less in number. But in the present world, there are more vehicles on road and thus increasing their effect on the environment.

3. Waste Disposal:

Disposal of wastes, whether biological, plastic or e-waste, without proper treatment, also contribute to air pollution. Burning plastic will produce many harmful gases, which will be a threat to the surrounding atmosphere and cause serious breathing problem in people. This applies to e-wastes too. Biological wastes while decomposition releases the foul smell.

Disposal of waste in an authorized manner is an important task.

4. Cutting Trees or Deforestation:

Green leaves absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during days to produce food using the process photosynthesis. This process helps the atmosphere to maintain its balance with gaseous compositions. But in this modern world, we humans have made too many buildings cutting down these precious lifesavers.

Deforestation and destruction of plants have affected the rate of carbon composed gases in the atmosphere that resulted in a comparatively lesser rate of oxygen. Oxygen is the only gas that keeps us alive. Saving trees and green plants will not only clean the atmosphere but also help us to live this life happily.


It is our responsibility to keep this atmosphere neat and clean. We can accomplish this task by taking good care of our nature and avoid doing things that cause air pollution. Plant more trees and avoid the use of vehicles every step you take. Reduce the amount of harmful gas being released into the atmosphere.

Essay on Air Pollution in Indian Cities – Causes, Effects, Prevention and Conclusion (Essay 5 – 500 Words)

A breath of fresh air has become quite unlikely for the densely populated Indian cities. Air pollution caused by the release of pollutants in the form of chemicals, gases, ash is increasing at an alarming rate. India is home to one-fifth of the world population and every year, nearly 1.2 million deaths are reported due to air pollution. The contamination of air due to pollutants has destroyed the natural balance of the environment, impairing human, and all other life forms.

Causes of Air Pollution in India:

1. Industrialization:

India is marching ahead on its way to become an Industrial Super Power of modern times. The flip side is to achieve this goal is the high levels of organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and chemicals released into the air by the industries.

2. Burning Natural Resources:

The thermal power stations significantly escalate air pollution by releasing enormous amounts of fly ash, carbon compounds, and SO2. The population explosion has expanded the reins of Indian cities, resulting in a pathetic traffic condition on the roads. Vehicles on the road release gases and dangerous fumes by carelessly burning petroleum and other fossil fuels.

3. Agricultural Practices:

The Indian farmers are indiscriminately using pesticides and fertilizers to increase their produce. These chemicals release hazardous ammonia gas, which is a major pollutant. The smog released due to stubble majoring in nearby agricultural lands was the major reason for choked the air in New Delhi.


1. Climate Change:

The biggest threat of air pollution is undoubtedly global warming and climate change. With every passing day the rise in temperature is drying up water resources, irregular rainfall is doing massive damage to the agriculture sector.

2. Health Hazards:

Air pollution is causing numerous respiratory disorders such as pneumonia, throat, nose or lungs irritations and asthma. People living in poor sanitation are subjected to harmful gases and chemicals which lead to severe health ailments.

3. Depletion of Ozone Layer:

Being a global citizen all Indians share equal responsibility to save the Ozone layer from depletion. Thinning of the Ozone layer results in harmful Ultraviolet (UV) rays coming back on earth leading to severe abnormalities, skin, and eye problems.

Prevention of Air Pollution:

The Indian Government has passed the Air Pollution Act of 1981, which clearly forbids industries, power plants and vehicles from releasing particulate matter, carbon monoxide, lead or other toxic materials beyond a cited level. Using public transport such as train or bus will greatly reduce the number of vehicles on the road and successively decrease the air pollution. By switching to green energy and renewable energy resources like solar, wind or hydroelectric, common people can prominently contribute to reduce air pollution. To plant more trees is the simplest solution to this colossal crisis.


Our future generations have a birth right to breathe clean air. India is at the brink of witnessing a national catastrophe if immediate measures are not taken to condemn Air Pollution. Awareness on this grave topic must be created on a large scale so that our daily practices are not contributing to these problems. All Indians must pledge and take concrete steps to eliminate air pollution.

Essay on Air Pollution – For Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 Students (Essay 6 – 600 Words)


The pure atmospheric air has been contaminated with chemical gases and suspended particles (aerosols) in the recent years. They have harmful effects on living beings and surroundings. This is known as Air Pollution.


For around 250 years, industrialization followed by introduction of motor vehicles, has led to air pollution. We have been unaware of the potential dangers for decades. But through sensitization measures, increasing health issues, and scientific satellite data, we have been helped to see how air pollution affects the quality of life on earth.

The Scientists at NOAA have reported 400 plus successive months with above average temperatures. NASA has reported warming oceans, shrinking ice sheets, and glacial retreats, decreased snow cover on mountain peaks, increased rainfalls and sea levels in the last century due to the global temperature rise.

Causes & Effects:

Air pollution occurs due to natural phenomenon as well as human activities. Comparatively, human activities cause more dangerous and intensified air pollution than the natural phenomenon.

Natural Phenomenon:

Toxic gases from volcano eruptions, smoke from wildfires, emission from radioactive elements, and evaporation from volatile organic compounds are few naturally occurring phenomenon that causes air pollution.

Human Activities:

According to studies, the greenhouse gas, Carbon dioxide accounts for 57% of the air pollution.

When fossil fuels like coal are burnt for energy, greenhouse gases like Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Fluorinated gases etc., are released into the atmosphere. There, they form a layer and trap the heat from the sun. This warms the temperature globally and affects the normal climate of the earth.

To add to the woe, these climatic changes further aggravates certain types of air pollution. Due to extreme heat levels and UV radiation, smog is experienced in big cities with huge factories and heavy traffic. It reduces visibility causing accidents and affects lung tissues aggravating asthma disease. Smog is also called ground level ozone.

On the other hand, the ozone layer in the atmosphere avoids damage to our skin, eyes etc., by filtering hazardous UV rays from the sun. But, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) emanated from burning plastics, discarded spray cans, leaky refrigerants etc., and causes depletion of Ozone layer by reducing ozone (O3) to oxygen (O2). Each CFC molecule has the capacity to destroy 1, 00,000 ozone molecules.

Deforestation for the sake of creating agricultural lands, breeding animals, timber logging, yielding firewood have elevated greenhouse gas emissions apart from damaging ecosystem, increasing soil erosion etc.

The lead from discarded batteries, carbon monoxide released from cigarettes, even particles from pesticides are some other causes of air pollution due to human actions.


Governments all over the world and stakeholders like United Nations, World Health Organisation (WHO) etc., have taken initiatives to sensitize people on the issue. Recommendations by these agencies are implemented at national and local levels. On Nov 4, 2016, the Paris Agreement has been signed by 118 nations to fight against climate change.

To ease traffic congestion and curb vehicular pollution, counter urbanization, public transportation, bicycling, walking etc., are encouraged. Saplings are planted to promote greenery and clean air.

Our Central Government has taken initiatives like promoting Solar Photovoltaic energy, wind energy, low emission diesel fuel from algae, natural gas, adoption of electric vehicles etc., in line with the Paris Agreement to improve air quality.

While engaged in agriculture, spraying pesticides at ground level is encouraged as against aerial spraying to avoid suspension of pesticide particles in air.


Every individual should contribute personally to reduce air pollution. Through daily activities, we are continuously emitting Carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which is called our Carbon Footprint. We can reduce it through economical usage of water, electricity and transportation like to prefer walking over driving, locally grown food over imported, etc. If these disciplines are slowly inculcated into our normal everyday day life, we can help each other and the future generation with a clean air, free from pollution.

Essay on Air Pollution – For College Students (Essay 7 – 750 Words)

Air pollution is one of the side effects of the rapid growth of industry and urban development. Since we cannot last more than a few minutes without air (that is oxygen) maybe this aspect of the environmental crises the world is facing, needs most of our devotion. Air pollution has become a big challenge to both the citizens and the government of our country.

What Is Air Pollution?

The Earth’s atmosphere is filled with different gasses, mostly nitrogen, and oxygen. Sometimes this atmosphere can get certain elements in it that pollute it. Air pollution is the contamination of air by harmful substances like dust, smoke, etc., affecting the chemical, physical and biological property of the air.

Causes of Air Pollution:

Air pollution has two main causes. The first is through natural disasters like volcano eruptions and forest fires. The smoke and ash produced in the eruption of volcanoes and forest fires mix with the atmospheric air and degrades the quality of air, causing air pollution.

The second is through the influence of human activities and the growth of industry. The growth of industrialization and urbanization has contributed the most to air pollution. The harmful gases released into the air by the industries are one of the major causes of air pollution. In rural areas, most of the people use biomass and fossil fuels for cooking purpose, which again contributes to air pollution. Yet another cause of air pollution is the use of A/C and refrigerators which release harmful CFCs into the atmosphere. Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides for agriculture also contributes to air pollution.

We pollute the earth’s atmosphere every day and this has caused significant changes in the temperature of the planet. Some cities have so many pollutants in the air that it is dangerous to breathe in them and people have to wear masks or oxygen bottles. This is a sad image if we consider that breathing is inherent to all living things.

Effects of Air Pollution:

Air Pollution affects the whole of ecosystem including the plants, animals, as well as the human beings. When the air that we breathe in gets polluted, the health of both animals and human beings are negatively affected. The particulate matter affects the respiratory tract causing bronchitis, asthma, and other lung diseases.

When smoke mixes with air, smog is formed, which reduces visibility and hence resulting in accidents. Acid rain is also a consequence of air pollution that corrodes the metals and buildings. Global warming is one of the major effects of air pollution, which causes depletion of ozone layer, resulting in skin diseases among humans. Global warming also brings about climate changes which again affects the ecosystem.

How can we stop Air Pollution?

The beginning of the 20th century saw some of the worst examples of air pollution. People should understand that their survival is linked with the air they are breathing and they need to do all that is in their power to stop the bad effects of the modern and industrial world.

There have been many initiatives that changed the way we release dangerous pollutants into the air like less fossil fuel is being consumed and new and sustainable technologies are being implemented for the production of power. This is just the beginning because we have been influencing the content of air for a very long time the bad effect cannot be reversed so quickly.

Other methods of reducing air pollution includes promoting afforestation programs, using alternative fuels for cooking, using better quality fertilizers and pesticides that are less harmful, using more public transport, etc.

More can be done as systems are being designed that incorporate a range of plant life in them with the expressed purpose to clean air, factories are forced to install filters, and rentable energy sources that do not use fossil fuel or nuclear power.

Government has also taken many initiates to improve the quality of air by proper monitoring and making strict laws to maintain clean air standards.

If we continue doing these in a regular manner, we can all minimize the harmful effect of air pollution and create a healthy atmosphere to live.


The world will not change overnight and it will not change by itself. The responsibility is in every person’s hands and we all have to do our share to stop the increase of air pollution. That means that we have to make responsible decisions in order to reduce air pollution and start doing them every day.

Essay on Air Pollution in India – Causes, Effects and Prevention (Essay 8 – 1000 Words)


Pollution is a major environmental issue that has challenged the country. Air pollution is the contamination of air by harmful substances that get introduced into the air. Air pollution is widespread and it continues to expand. With the growing population, a widespread air pollution is continually realized. This is a great challenge to both the citizens and the government because they are negatively affected by the consequences of air pollution. The country is affected by air pollution in almost all aspects but mostly the health effects are more adverse than the others. Air pollution is not only a threat to human life but also to animals, visibility, plants and odors.

Causes of Air Pollution in India:

Release of pollutants into air can occur either naturally or due to human intervention. Natural causes of air pollution rarely occur and they are not widespread compared to human interventions causing most of the pollution. Natural causes include eruption of volcanoes whereas human interventions include; greenhouse gas emissions, fuel combustion, industrial gases and wastes that have not been carefully disposed. These pollutants contain harmful substances e.g., lead and gases like Sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and monoxide and nitrogen oxide. The most harmful gas is Sulphur dioxide and lead substances suspensions in air result in adverse health effects. India experiences traffic congestion, which causes an increased emission of carbon into the air.

Carbon is the commonest pollutant in India due to daily combustion of fuel and biomass. Biomass consists of fuel wood, cow dung and wastes from crops. Cooking fuel in India is mainly derived from combustion of biomass. Biomass combustion emits a lot of smoke compared to other forms of combustion. The smoke resulting from biomass combustion is usually thick and concentrated. This human activity takes place both in urban areas and rural areas because it is sort of cultural practice. With the increase in population, the increase of biomass combustion increases and this is a trend that should be handled.

Effects of Air Pollution:

Air pollution causes challenges in form of the effects it has on the ecosystem. Once the air is polluted, every living thing that is dependent on air for life support is affected negatively. There effects are health related both in animals and human beings, for plants, the quality is reduced. The poisonous substances in the atmosphere harm the body systems of human beings especially the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Air pollution also results in the formation of acid rain that causes harm to plants. Acid rain can be consumed by unsuspecting individuals and they could develop illnesses from the chemical content in acid rain.

Global warming is a major environmental consequence of air pollution. Global warming results from the destruction of the ozone layer by harmful substances and gases emitted to the atmosphere. Destruction of the ozone layer has been gradually happening and the consequences have been experienced in most parts of the world. Global warming causes an irregular and abnormal change in weather for example the intensity of the sun’s hotness has greatly increased in most parts of the world and this causes a generalized rise in temperature of the world’s surface. Global warming has affected all aspects of life especially the agricultural sector because growth patterns of plants has been negatively affected. The impact of global warming is expected to continue over the years because greenhouse gases are still being emitted. The effects of global warming differ from region to region depending on the change in season e.g., excessive rainfall and snowfall or excessive heat and heat waves.

Prevention of Air Pollution in India:

Efforts made towards prevention of air pollution vary depending on the approach used. In response to the adverse effects that are being experienced and the challenges that are faced, prevention methods of air pollution have been initiated. The first approach was intended to control the rate of air pollution. In controlling air pollution, the emission of greenhouse gases have to be reduced through the use of better energy sources like electricity. Electricity has been installed in both urban and rural areas in India. The industries have also been regulated to filter their gaseous wastes before release to the atmosphere. WHO (World Health Organization) reported high incidence of death resulting from air pollution and it proposed strategies for handling air pollution as a public health emergency. The strategies to be implemented included the air cleaning project. The government has also implemented strict policies on the waste disposal systems in the country. The government, through the environmental ministry, has made use of the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to monitor the air pollution in the country with aims of reducing it.

Adoption of modern energy generation advancements so that old models of energy creation that cause air pollution can be eliminated. Biomass combustion causes a lot of carbon release yet the energy produced is insufficient and the process is exhausting. New advancements like the use of electrical and solar appliances in cooking results in a controlled state of gas emission to the atmosphere. It is upon the people to embrace these modern methods and accept change. Public awareness is a key aspect in change implementation because if the public is well educated, accepting change will be easier.


In conclusion, air pollution challenges have been felts globally because life processes have been interfered with. The government and citizens have a collective responsibility in the prevention and control of air pollution. The effects of air pollution will reduce upon the reduction of air pollution. Although people do not have enough resources to repair the damage caused by air pollution, the prevention will gradually show improvements.

Essay on Air Pollution in India – For Civil Services, IAS, IPS, UPSC and Other Competitive Exams (Essay 9 – 1500 Words)


Air pollution in simple terms is a type of pollution that affects the quality of air we breathe in and is caused by many different pollutants, of which carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides and Sulphur oxides are the main culprits. The level of air pollution depends on the type and amount of pollutants released from different sources as the pollutants do not stay in one place and spread all around because of the topographical and meteorological conditions.

It is a widespread problem that affects billion of people around the world and it is causing health hazards to people. It is an issue that is increasing day by day as there is a significant increase in concentration of harmful and toxic materials in the air. A vast variety of human activities are the reason behind this problem becoming life threatening.

In terms of PM 2.5 concentrations, according to WHO, India has 15 out of 15 most polluted cities in the world. As per the report, 9 in 10 people breathe polluted air and 7 million people die every year because of air pollution. These fine particulate matter are smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter and includes pollutants like sulphates, nitrates, and soot (black carbon).


The main sources of these fine particulate matter include the inefficient use of energy by households, industry, agriculture and transport sector, and power plants that are fired by coal. In some places, dust from sand and desert, burning of agricultural waste and even deforestation are also reasons behind air pollution. There are some natural sources of pollutants as well which include pollens, spores, volcanic gases and solar flares. Forest fires also result in pollutants that are harmful. Natural radioactivity and evaporation of organic compounds also fall in the category of natural events that result in air pollution.

The most common and easily managed cause of air pollution is the inefficient burning of fuels in industries, vehicles, cooking, and other activities which result in formation of soot, nitrogen oxides and Sulphur oxides. There are certain metallic pollutants that are released into air by the process of mining. Production of fertilizers, pesticides, etc., not only leads to air pollution but it also affects the quality of water. They have a negative effect even when they are used by farmers to increase crop production. Chemicals like ammonia are released which gets mixed with the fresh air resulting in air pollution. Industries release toxic smokes and gases which has high contents of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, hydrocarbons, chemicals, etc. And as the number of industries is increasing, there is an increase in these pollutants as the air is not treated before it is expelled in atmosphere. Even the improper waste disposal techniques are a reason for air pollution. It is not just a problem that results in land pollution but it also affects the quality of air as decomposition releases methane gas which is an air pollutant.


Pollutants can be divided into gaseous and particulate. Both of them can have negative effects on human health. There are other pollutants like nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ozone which affect the health along with certain non-halogenated hydrocarbons and Sulphur gases. It can cause a large variety of lethal and non-lethal diseases. It can make people more susceptible to something as worse as cancer.

The particulate matter affects the respiratory tract and it can cause bronchitis, asthma and other lung diseases. Smog can lower visibility and which can result in accidents on road. It also harms plant life and causes respiratory issues. Some of the examples of problems created by these pollutants are: carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin in blood and reduces its oxygen carrying capacity. It can also be lethal at high concentrations. Sulphur oxide causes irritation in eyes and also can cause damage to respiratory tract. Air pollution is responsible for many non-communicable diseases resulting in death. These include heart diseases, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

Air pollution also damages the whole ecosystem and it affects plants and animals along with the humans. There is ozone depletion because of this which has long term adverse effects on the environment.

With increasing air pollution, global warming has increased as there is an increase in the temperature because of the greenhouse gases. These gases cause the greenhouse effect to multiply and that results in further temperature increase. This has resulted in melting of glaciers, increase in sea levels, changes in climate all over the world. There is depletion of ozone layer which exacerbates the problem with the greenhouse gases.


As we have seen that there are many negative effects of air pollutants, it is very important to control it. This damage because of air pollutants has reached a critical level and because of this, there are even harmful radiations that are coming into the Earth’s atmosphere. Control measures need to be taken so that the pollutants can be reduced in air.

Some of the common control measures include using alternative fuel sources for vehicles as well as cooking, promoting use of public transport, minimizing vehicular exhaust, massive afforestation programs so that there are many trees to absorb polluting CO2, proper treatment of air that is emitted from factories, and many such others. Recycling efforts at the grassroots level will help in improving the environment. Along with all these measures, there should be educational and awareness programs that will help people understand that this is a life threatening issue that needs to be taken seriously.

There are certain government initiatives also in place. There is now improved air quality monitoring which helps people understand the significance of this problem in India. There are action plans that are put together to ensure that strict action is taken so that all cities have to maintain certain clean air standards.

Air Pollution in India:

India is suffering from one of the worst air pollutions. According to 2017 State of Global Air Report by Health Effects Institute, there was almost 150% increase in the number of deaths due to air pollution in India between 1990 and 2015. The nation’s capital is choked with air filled with pollutants. It has been declared as a public health emergency. The particulate matter from the capital is spreading to nearby rural areas and they are affected by the polluted air as well. Because of this problem, the government had to close schools, implement odd-even vehicle number scheme, and increase parking charges in the capital. There were other measures like five-day ban on construction and demolition in Delhi.

It is not only the metro cities that are the cause behind this problem. Rural areas contribute just as much to this issue. Rural households use biomass as cooking fuel which produces pollutants. Practices like burning of crop stubble are also common. Polluted air can move from these areas to major cities and combine with pollutants in air that are present because of traffic, factory emissions and even construction dust. According to a report in WHO, there are higher chances of mothers delivering babies that are underweight in households that use biomass fuels. Poverty is one reason behind people still using this cooking fuel.

The mountains and hills in India also act as a reservoir that traps all the toxic air in various parts of the country. This makes the air too dangerous to breathe in.

There are anti-pollution laws in India but they are not well enforced. There is an Air Act (Prevention and Control of Pollution) that was set up in year 1981. It works towards prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution. There are some cities that have banned the pollution sources like brick kilns in the city boundary limits, the exhaust from these still blows over from where they are placed outside the city limits.

Air pollution has resulted in health problems, adverse effects on other plant and animal life. It was observed in a study that the crop yield was reduced drastically in areas affected by air pollution. Additionally, it is also becoming a problem for buildings and monuments like the Taj Mahal. It has affected operation of flights because of poor visibility. There are reports of traffic accidents because of smog on the roads.


Bottom line is that most people believe that they are not a contributing factor to this problem. The nation’s government is blamed for not taking measures to control air pollution and improve the air quality. There will be no effect of any of government’s action plans till there is an individual effort put in to control this issue. It includes something as small as taking public transport, or using electricity and gas efficiently. This tiny bit of effort can help controlling air pollution in the long run. There needs to be a shift towards greener sources of energy to achieve sustainable development and have a good life quality.

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