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Essay on Acid Rain

The elevated levels of ions of hydrogen that land on the ground along with rainwater are what we all refer to as acid rain. There are many reasons for this phenomenon which have been studied by researchers over a long period of time. The acid rain is considered harmful not just for plants but for human life and other living beings as well. Hence it is all the more important for the students to read about the causes of acid rain, what harmful effects it has on us and other flora and fauna and finally what can be done to prevent it. Hence, we have come up with long essays for students on this very sensitive ecological topic, acid rain which would benefit students at large.

List of Essays on Acid Rain in English

Essay on Acid Rain – Essay 1 (150 Words)


Acid rain simply means rain high in acidic contents such as a high rate of hydrogen ions. Acid rain is a cause of concern because of its effect on forest life and lakes. To a larger extent, acid rain is a big threat to our natural environment.

Causes of Acid Rain:

When we burn fossil fuel, we release a lot of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere. These compounds when mixed with air go straight into the atmosphere. At this level, they mix with water, oxygen, and other components to become acid rain.

Effect of Acid Rain:

For the aquatic animal, acid rain becomes deadly since it reduces the PH level in the water. Many animals that live in water need a particular PH level to survive. When that PH level is reduced, it becomes difficult to survive. For trees, acid rain leaves them exposed to diseases.


Our animal and plant life should be of paramount importance to us. To end this, we must reduce our release of toxic gas into the atmosphere.

Essay on Acid Rain: Introduction, After-Effects and Conclusion – Essay 2 (250 Words)


Advancement of science and mass industrialization has led to many man-induced phenomenon and acid rain is one of them. It is nothing but rain that is highly acidic in content. Poisonous gases emitted by chemical industries pollute the atmosphere with oxides of sulphur, nitrogen and hydrogen. When these oxides raise high into the clouds, they react with water molecules there and turn them into sulphuric acid, nitric acid and hydrochloric acid respectively. These acids are released into the atmosphere as rain, snow or precipitation. Natural phenomenon like volcanoes and fossil fuel combustion also produce harmful gases which can cause acid rain.

After-Effects of Acid Rain:

Acid rains have a multitude of effects on humans, animals and the environment. Breathing problems like asthma is caused in children and adults alike. Skin peeling is possible when there is direct contact with acid rain. Corrosion of metals, peeling of paints on buildings, erosion of natural stones like marbles, granites and limestones are all inclusive. In addition, rivers and oceans get polluted with high contents of acid resulting in death of plants, fishes and other sea creatures. Fresh water reserves turn toxic and harmful to consume. Trees die due to direct and continuous exposure. Many insects are killed instantaneously. And exposed agricultural lands will no longer be fit for cultivation.


Measures should be taken to avoid air pollution by industries. Environmentally friendly methods need to be adopted by everyone. Both the public and government need to realize the seriousness of the issue and work together to solve the problem of acid rain.

Essay on Acid Rain: Causes and Effects – Essay 3 (300 Words)

“Acid Rain”, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry this term was coined by Scottish chemist Robert Angus Smith in 1852. “Acid Rain” is a result of acidification of rainwater due to mixing relatively large quantities of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emissions in the atmosphere. Interaction of this acidic water with other constituents of the atmosphere increases the soil acidity. It leaches away nutrients in the soil and heavily degrades quality of air. “Acid Rain” is posing a prospective threat to our ecosystem and environment.


Rain water is increasingly acidified by pollutants released from homes, factories, power stations and cars.

i. Man-made Causes:

Heavy industrialization and urbanization is the major cause of acid rain. The exhausts of industries and factories emit harmful gases like Sulphur Dioxide (SiO2) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in the atmosphere. These gases interact with the water precipitation in the atmosphere and the chemical reaction between these gases and water molecules form Sulphuric Acid and Nitric acid.

A Large number of industries are set up nearby the majestic Taj Mahal, which emit harmful pollutants in the air and cause acid rain. The “Acid rain” reacts with the marble of Taj Mahal, causing damage to this heritage structure. To protect Taj Mahal over 2000 industries situated near Taj Mahal had transferred. The situation still remains critical because of the nearby leather industries.

ii. Natural Causes:

Volcano eruption releases various harmful gases in the environment which results in “acid rain” in the nearby areas.


“Acid rain” causes heavy damage to the ecosystem in the affected areas. It has the largest impact on lakes, streams, wetlands, and other aquatic environments. Acidic water is absorbed into the soil and water bodies which turns them into toxic compounds. The toxic pollutants pose a huge risk to the survival of aquatic creatures like crayfish, clams, fish, and other aquatic animals. Forests are also destroyed by “acid rain” and the ecological balance of the affected area is hampered to a huge level.


The only way to mitigate “acid rain” is to impose censorship on heavy industries which cause damage to our ecosystem. All the citizens must adopt and practise eco-friendly lifestyle. We must encourage use of alternative energy sources which will prevent burning of fossil fuels which releases harmful gases.

Essay on Acid Rain – Essay 4 (400 Words)

Acid rain is any form of precipitation which has acidic components like sulfuric acid or nitric acid. It falls to ground from the atmosphere in either wet or dry form. The precipitation can be in many different forms – rain, snow, fog, hail or even dust. It has a pH less than 5.6. Normally, the clean rain water has a pH of 5.6 as there is carbonic acid present in the rain water. This is because of carbon dioxide dissolved in water. The term acid rain was coined by Robert Angus Smith in 1872. There are two types of acid rain depositions – wet deposition and dry deposition.

It is a form of air pollution that is very damaging to the environment. The reason behind acid rain is particles like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which are emitted from fuel combustion. These molecules move up the atmosphere with the help of air currents and then they react with water and oxygen to form sulphuric acids and nitric acids. These acids combine with water before falling to ground in any form of precipitation. There are other sources of sulphur oxides and nitric oxides like volcanoes, manufacturing industries and vehicles. Even the decaying vegetation and wild forest fires generate the gases that form acid rain.

There are many negative effects of acid rain. Acid rain can make water bodies like lakes and ponds poisonous. This makes these water bodies inhabitable for marine life and makes the drinking sources unfit for human consumption. The number of aquatic animals and plants reduces because water becomes more acidic. It also degrades the quality of soil because of the acidic pH when it is absorbed into soil. As the soil quality is affected, it leads to reduction in the crop yield. There is a reduced growth of plants and trees in areas that are affected by acid rain. It impacts human health by causing skin problems, heart and lung issues. Other than biotic components, it affects and damages buildings and property. It is corrosive in nature and this is reflected in the corrosion of Taj Mahal by acid rain.

The problem is increasing and becoming worse because of the rapid population growth and industrialization. Although natural sources cannot be contained or regulated, we can at least work on controlling the manmade causes. Acid rain can be reduced by choosing cleaner forms of energy like solar power. Afforestation is another thing that can help in reducing air pollution.

Essay on Acid Rain: Causes, Effects and Prevention – Essay 5 (500 Words)


Acid rain is basically wet deposition of acids in rain or snow that is of low pH on to the surface of the earth. However, rain water is naturally acidic due to the carbonic acid rain is an environmental hazard brought about by pollution. Pollution of the environment especially air and water pollution result in formation of acid rain.

Formation and Causes of Acid Rain:

Acid rain occurs in two ways. Wet deposition occurs when there is a precipitation and raindrops deliver the acidic components to the earth’s surface whereas dry deposition occurs when no precipitation occurs and the pollutants stick to plants and the earth surface. Air pollution causes the accumulation of chemicals in the atmosphere. These chemicals form chemical reactions that react with water and oxygen in the atmosphere and form acid rain. Gases that are oxides like Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide form reactions with oxygen and water and form acids. These chemical reactions increase with the increase in air pollution by human or natural activities. Natural activities like the eruption of volcanoes or hot springs in geothermal result in the release of Sulphur dioxide to the atmosphere while lightning strikes cause a release of nitrogen oxide to the atmosphere. Human activities especially industrialization, combustion of fuels and emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere also contribute to the accumulation of oxides in the atmosphere which result in acid rain formation. Air pollutants have greatly increased the formation of acid rain and the effects have affected the health of living things on the surface of the earth.

Effects of Acid Rain:

Acid rain affects both animate and inanimate components of the environment. Plants and animals are mostly affected health wise because of the direct interaction. Plants get scorched and growth is impaired because acid rain also affects the soil pH by acidifying it. Animals, including humans consume acid rain when harvested which affects their health negatively especially through heart and lung problems. Acid rain is deleterious to aquatic animals like fish because acidic water flows to water bodies. Inanimate objects like buildings are also negatively affected. Buildings and bridges made of stone, steel or sand are corroded by the acids.

Prevention of Acid Rain:

Reduction of pollutants released to the atmosphere will prevent acid rain formation. The industries will have to ensure that filtration of gases before release to the atmosphere is done. There is a technical method of flue-gas desulphurization that helps in preventing emissions of Sulphur dioxide and compounds to the atmosphere. The adherence to air quality agreements that have been put in place is important. Government effort in gaseous emissions control programs will enable the regulation of pollutants released to the atmosphere therefore acid rain formation will be reduced.


In conclusion, acid rain is an environmental hazard that is caused by acidic components that accumulate in the atmosphere. Acid rain has both deleterious and adverse effects to the environment. The control of air pollution will result in reduction of acid rain formation.

Essay on Acid Rain: With Conclusion – Essay 6 (600 Words)


‘Acid Rain’ is not a term that we hear very commonly. Most of us would not even know that such a type of rain exists. Before we move any further, let’s first understand what acid rain means.

The literal term ‘Acid Rain’ will make us think that acid would pour from the sky as rain but it is not so. Acid rain is formed when certain gases mix up with the atmospheric moisture and create precipitation which is more acidic than the normal one. In chemical terms, when the pH level of rain water falls below 5.6, it turns acidic and changes as acid rain. Robert A. Smith was the first to use the term ‘Acid Rain’ in 1872 in his studies of air in Manchester, England. But the term was most widely recognized only in 1980.

Effects of Acid Rain:

On a general note, rain is welcomed by all since it refreshes the atmosphere and benefits the environment. But not all rains do this and acid rain is a best example to show the devastating effects that a rain can cause. Since most of us are unaware of the subject acid rain, we have only little knowledge about it. Acid rain can destroy anything over a short period of time. Acid rain is very dangerous to the environment.

Acid rain falling on rivers, lakes and other water bodies makes it poisonous and destroys marine life.

It damages the forests and kills the insects and other living creatures. Black Forest in Germany received its name due to the acid rain which turned the trunks and branches of all its trees into black.

Acid rain causes severe damage to buildings and monuments because these are made of Calcium Carbonate stone; acid rain reacts with Calcium Carbonate and destroys it. The paint peels off quickly and the statues lose their good appeal. Taj Mahal, one of the wonders of the world has faced the ill-effects of acid rain.

When the acid rain falls on a place, it changes the acidity level of that place causing great harm to both the living and non-living things existing there.

Acid rain is hazardous to humans also as it causes respiratory problems and various other health issues.

Causes of Acid Rain:

Both nature and humans are to be blamed for the occurrence of acid rain.

Normal rain occurs when Carbon dioxide and water present in the air react together and forms Carbonic acid which is a weak acid. Acid rain is caused when Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide reacts with water molecules in the atmosphere and produces acid which is harmful in nature. So, the main cause of acid rain is the emission of Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere. This emission occurs in two ways – emission through volcanic eruption and decaying vegetation, combustion of fossil fuels from transport, burning chimneys and industrialization.

Ways to Prevent Acid Rain:

Acid rain is very dangerous and it should be stopped from occurring. We cannot stop acid rain that occurs due to natural reasons but we can surely do our best to reduce the use of fossil fuels which leads to the emission of gases like Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide. Air pollution is the main reason for almost all the environmental problems and humans should make all attempts to reduce pollution. Using solar power instead of electricity, recycling natural resources and planting more trees can help in purifying the air and can also help in preventing man-made disasters like acid rain.


Each of us must take vow to preserve the natural resources and maintain the environment as clean and healthy as possible. Causing damage to the environment will only lead to the extinction of this Planet and no technology can help us buy a beautiful home similar to Earth.

Essay on Acid Rain: Types, Sources and Harmful Impacts – Essay 7 (750 Words)


Acid Rain simply means a rainfall that is highly acidic and such rain causes environmental, atmospheric and material depletion. Acid rain affects infrastructure, aquatic creature, plants and so many more. When something is acidic, it means it has a high level of ions of hydrogen which also means that the pH of the object or substance is low. Rain water that is normal is already a little bit acidic and has pH between 5.3 and 6.0. This is so because the water and carbon dioxide that are together in the atmosphere react together and form an acid known as carbonic acid; carbonic acid is an acid that is weak. Whenever the pH of water drops below the above stipulated range, the rain water is said to be acid rain.

Acid rain formation isn’t due to just one reason; both man-made and natural sources are believed to influence acid rain. That said, the emissions and release of nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide as a result of fossil fuels being combusted is the major cause of acid rain. Acid rain can be in form of snow, rain, fog, hail or even dew that contains high level of acid pollutants, most especially nitric acid and sulphuric acid. When emitted nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide reacts and mix with water molecules that are present in the air and atmosphere, acid rains are produced.

Evolution of Acid Rain:

The name “acid rain” was given by a man called Robert Smith in 1872. In recent years, industrialisation and population has led to a sharp and exponential increase in acid rains with it becoming a lot more alarming. Acid rains are also being further influenced by the use of chimneys that are very tall also known as smokestacks on ships, factories, etc. Smokestacks are used to lower the rate of air pollution but they end up spreading and causing acid rains through the release of gases right into the atmospheric circulation of a region. There is a very large quantity of deposits of acid in the United States, Canada and almost all of Europe including parts of Germany, Norway and Sweden. Of recent, some parts of the southern part of Asia, Sri Lanka and South Africa have also witnessed deposits of acid.

Types of Acid Rain:

Acid rains are divided based on the type of deposition by which the occurrence of the acid rain takes place.

Basically, we have two depositions types and they are discussed below:

Wet Deposition:

When acid rain is in form of snow, rain, mist or fog when it falls to the surface of the earth, acid is removed from the air or atmosphere by these liquids and is dropped on the surface of the earth. The flow of this acid rain through the earth affects a great quantity of aquatic life, animals and plants. Water moves from the drains into small water bodies like canals and rivers which in turn flow into seas and ocean causing damage to marine life.

Dry Deposition:

When there is a merging together of various acidic pollutants and they form smoke and dust that comes to the surface of the earth in the form of dry particles that stick on the surface of the earth and many other surfaces like monuments, trees, houses, cars and buildings. It is important to note that almost all of pollutants that are in the air or atmosphere are spread through the method of dry deposition.

Sources of Acid Rain:

Acid rains are majorly caused by two sources and the sources are discussed below:

1. Natural Sources:

Volcanic eruptions are the major agents that cause acid rain. Huge quantities of lava that produces gases that are harmful are emitted by volcanoes and this causes acid rain that are quite more severe than usual. The gases that form the acid rain are also generated by biological processes including wildfires and decaying vegetation that occur within the environment.

2. Human Sources:

Activities of humans that lead to the release of gases like nitrogen and sulphur from automobile plants, power generating setups and factories are the causes of acid rain here. Coal when it is used to generate electric power is probably the greatest contribution to the emission of gases that can cause acid rain

The harmful impacts of Acid Rain:

Acid rain can bring serious harm to the environment and a few of the various wide segments of the environment where it can wreak havoc are listed below:

1. Public health

2. Wildlife and forests

3. Infrastructure and architecture

4. Soil

5. Marine life.

Essay on Acid Rain: With Solution – Essay 8 (1000 Words)

The presence of harmful hydrogen ions in the raindrops which fall on us is called acid rain. Acid rain is a prominent term alluding to the testimony of a mixture of wet (rain, snow, slush, mist, cloud water, and dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic segments. Fluids with a pH under 7 are termed acidic, and those with a pH more prominent than 7 are alkaline.

History of Acid Rain:

The destructive effect of polluted, acidic nature of the air of a region on limestone and marble was noted in the seventeenth century by John Evelyn, who commented upon the poor state of the Arundel marbles. Since the Industrial Revolution, outflows of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the environment have increased. In 1852, Robert Angus Smith was the first to demonstrate the connection between acid rain and climatic contamination in Manchester, England. He is also called as the Father of Acid rain due to his immense contribution towards the study of acid rain. Despite the fact that acid rain was found in 1853, it was not until the late 1960s that researchers started generally watching and observing the phenomenon. The expression acid rain was coined in 1872 by Robert Angus Smith.

Causes of Acid Rain:

The cause of acid rain is attributed to both man-made as well as natural causes.

Natural Causes – The major natural cause leading to acid rain is the volcanic eruptions. Volcanoes emanate acid releasing gases to make higher than ordinary measures of acid rain or some other type of precipitation, for example, mist and snow to a degree of influencing vegetation cover and wellbeing of inhabitants in an area. Decaying vegetation, out of control fires and natural procedures inside the earth likewise produce the acid rain-causing gases. Lightning strikes in addition normally create nitric oxides that respond with water particles by means of electrical action to deliver nitric acid and thus causing acid rain.

Man-Made Causes – Human activities prompting substance gas outflows, for example, sulphur and nitrogen are the essential causes of acid rain. The activities incorporate air contamination sources transmitting sulphur and nitrogen gases like power generation facilities and vehicular emissions. Specifically, utilization of coal for electrical power is the greatest cause of vaporous emanations prompting acid rain. Vehicles and manufacturing plants likewise discharge high scores of vaporous emanations on consistent schedule into the air, particularly in exceedingly industrialized zones and urban areas with huge quantities of vehicle movement. These gases respond in the air with water, oxygen, and different synthetic concoctions to shape different acidic mixes, for example, sulphuric acid, ammonium nitrate, and nitric corrosive. Accordingly, these areas encounter exceedingly high measures of acid rain.

Effects of Acid Rain:

Acid rain affects almost everything. Plants, soil, trees, structures and even statues can be changed by the precipitation. Acid rain has been observed to be very harmful to the trees. It debilitates them by washing ceaselessly the defensive film on leaves, and it stunts development. Acid rain can likewise change the creation of soil and waterways, making them appalling for nearby creatures and plants. For instance, normal lakes have a pH of 6.5 or higher. As acid rain raises the dimension of corrosiveness, the waters turn acidic. Most fish species can’t endure a water pH of underneath 5. At the point when the pH turns into a 4, the lake is viewed as dead. Such is the effect an acid rain can have on life. It can furthermore disintegrate and corrode limestone and marble structures and landmarks, similar to tombstones.

Solutions Ahead:

There are a few answers for ceasing artificial acid rain. Controlling the emanations originating from vehicles and structures is an essential step. This should be possible by confining the utilization of petroleum derivatives and concentrating on progressively maintainable vitality sources, for example, solar energy and wind control.

Additionally, every individual can do their part by decreasing their vehicle use. Utilizing open transportation, strolling, riding a bicycle or carpooling is a small yet important step. Individuals can likewise decrease their utilization of power, which is broadly made with petroleum by-products, or change to a sunlight based arrangement. Numerous power organizations offer sun oriented packs to their clients that require no establishment and low expenses.

Acid Rain Instances in India:

It has been discovered that potential neutralizer of the acidic parts of rainwater in the Indian subcontinent is Calcium which is predominantly available from the soil. As the soil of the most part of Indian land is Calcareous, it contains a bounty of calcium. Taj Mahal, one of the most beautiful historical monuments has been affected by acid rain. The city of Agra has numerous enterprises which transmit the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in the environment. Individuals keep on utilizing low-quality coal and kindling as household fuel, adding to this issue. There have hardly been any measures taken in order to have a check on this increasing pollution and industrialization in Agra. Acid rain caused in this region is due to the interaction of sulphuric acid with calcium carbonate resulting in the formation of calcium sulphate. This has led to the damage of the surface of Taj Mahal and it has lost its shine owing to this acid rain.


There are natural causes of acid rain which are beyond our control. However, there are enough causes which have been instigated by us and we have all the means in this world to control them. What is, however, required is our willingness to do so. Only if we decide today that we are going to stop or at least minimise the use of petroleum by-products and instead switch to cleaner fuels, we can prevent a lot of current environmental issues such as air pollution, water pollution and acid rain. It is for all of us to understand that we need to this not for plants and animals but for our own good and for the betterment of our future generations. Some small measures by all individuals along with some measures in place by the government can do wonders for our country. At least we can make it a better place to live for all.

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