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Essay on Environmental Pollution

Harmful substances and contaminants affecting the environment constitute environmental pollution. All types of pollution such as air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, light pollution, soil pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive pollution and others come under the broader category of environmental pollution. How this pollution affects us and how it is caused has been a matter of study for years. It the need of today to understand the effects of environmental pollution and what should be done to minimise it. We have prepared long essays for students which shall not only provide information about environmental pollution and its effects but shall guide them as well how to contribute towards reducing environmental pollution.

List of Essays on Environmental Pollution in English

Essay on Environmental Pollution – Essay 1 (150 Words)


Environmental pollution is one of the most critical threats faced by our planet in the present day scenario. This is a global issue, which is seen commonly in all countries, including the third–world countries, irrespective of their developmental statuses.

What is Environmental Pollution?

Environmental pollution is when human activities introduce contaminants in the environment, thereby leading to the disruption of the routine processes, causing irreversible changes in the environment. The agents causing pollution are called pollutants. Pollutants are substances occurring in nature or created because of extraneous human activities. Pollutants can also be forms of energies let out in the environment. Based on the pollutants and the pollution caused in the components of the environment, the environmental pollution may be classified as follows:

i. Air Pollution

ii. Water Pollution

iii. Soil/Land Pollution

iv. Noise Pollution

v. Radioactive Pollution

vi. Thermal Pollution


Any natural resource found in the environment, when used at a higher rate than the ability of its restoration, leads to depletion, thereby causing environmental pollution. This will lead to the declination of environmental quality and is evidenced by the loss of biodiversity, loss of flora and fauna, the introduction of new diseases and stressful life in the human population, etc.

Essay on Environmental Pollution: Types, Causes and Effects – Essay 2 (250 Words)


The environment forms a very important aspect of human life because that is where we find the essentials of life e.g., air, water and food. Due to global industrialization and modernization, there has been environmental pollution. The environmental pollution has greatly affected the quality of life for animals, plants and humans. Hazardous effects including diseases that have emerged as a result of environmental pollution. Environmental pollution is basically the contamination of environment’s nature in both physical and biological systems which affects the normal functioning of the environment.

Types and Causes of Environmental Pollution:

The types of environmental pollution are specific to causes and components of the environment. Environmental pollution is classified into groups depending on the natural components as follows; air pollution, noise pollution, soil pollution and water pollution. The contaminants of the environment are called pollutants. The main pollutants are industries because industries emit harmful gases in the atmosphere, which cause air pollution, industrial effluents are also discharged into water bodies causing water pollution. Other pollutants include smoke from combustion, greenhouse gasses emission e.g., carbon dioxide which is high in India.

Effects of Environmental Pollution:

Environmental pollution has been a challenge in India. The adverse effects are specific to the type of pollution although some may cut across. Air pollution has resulted in harm to human health and destruction of the ozone layers in the atmosphere. Water pollution has caused death of aquatic life and acidification. Soil pollution has resulted in unhealthy soil i.e., unbalanced soil pH which does not favor plant growth. India has struggled with challenges of environmental pollution.


Environmental pollution has become a great concern to save our planet. We need to adapt various measures to reduce environment pollution. Some of them includes planting trees, reducing the use of non-renewable resources, proper disposal of wastes, etc. It is the responsibility of every individual to save our environment from getting polluted.

Essay on Environmental Pollution: With Conclusion – Essay 3 (300 Words)


We should treat the environment of our earth like our mother. It also nurtures us. If the climate gets polluted then, how can we survive?

Earth provides us so many natural resources for our health and growth. But, as time is passing, we are becoming more selfish and keep on polluting our environment. We do not know that if our environment gets more polluted then, it will ultimately affect our health and future too. It will not be possible for us to survive on earth easily.

Effect of Environmental Pollution on Health:

It is unnecessary to tell that environmental pollution has ruined and spread its toxic tentacles inside the basic needs of human, i.e., water, food, air, and soil. It affects our inhaling, drinking, and eating. It also damages the health of animals along with humans.

Various things pollute the air like gaseous releases from motor vehicle ignitions and industries, burning fossil fuels inside the air, etc. The solid industrial waste, oil spills, plastic dumps, and city garbage that thrown into the water pollutes the river and oceans. Similarly, inorganic procedures of agriculture destroy the fertility of the soil.

As you know that water is used for drinking, the soil used for producing food, and the air is used for breathing, all of these three contaminated elements insert their pollutants inside the body of human and result in diseases.

The diseases that occur due to environmental pollution consist of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, lung cancer, skin cancer, lead poisoning, cardiovascular diseases and stroke, radiation augmented cancers, mercury poisoning, congenital disabilities, allergies, lung diseases owing to occupational exposure to numerous toxin and many more. The list is unending.


Our earth is moving on the way to unhealthy future for every living being. So, we must become aware of the factors that pollute our environment and take some necessary steps to keep our future safe and healthy.

Essay on Environmental Pollution – Essay 4 (500 Words)

Our environment is made of both living and non-living things. The living things include animals, plants, and other microorganisms, whereas air, water, soil, sunlight, etc., form the non-living components of the environment.

Whenever any kind of toxicity is added to our surroundings for a considerably long duration, it leads to environmental pollution. Some of the major types of pollutions are air, water, soil, noise, light, and nuclear pollution.

Smokes from the industries, house chimneys, vehicles, and fuels causes air pollution. Wasted industrial solvents, plastics, and other wastes, sewage etc., causes water pollution. Use of pesticides and deforestation are the major causes of soil pollution. The unnecessary honking of the vehicles, use of loudspeakers lead to noise pollution.

Although it is hard to realize the light and nuclear pollutions these are equally harmful. Excessively bright lights consume a lot of energy while threatening the environmental balance in several ways. Needless to say, the negative impacts of a nuclear reaction last for many decades to come.

All the constituents are interconnected to each other. As the cycle of nature goes on, the toxicity of one component is passed on to all other components as well. There are various means by which the contamination continues to circle in the environment. We can understand it with an example below.

When it rains, the impurities of air gradually dissolve in the water-bodies and soil. When crops are grown in the fields, their roots absorb these harmful toxicants through the contaminated soil and water. The same food is ingested by both animals and human beings. In this way, it reaches the top of the food chain when the herbivores are consumed by the carnivores.

The consequences of environmental pollution can be seen in the form of severe health diseases. More people are suffering from respiratory problems, weaker immunity, kidney and liver infections, cancer, and other chronic illnesses. The aquatic life, including both flora and fauna, is depleting rapidly. The soil quality and crop quality are deteriorating.

Global warming has become a major issue as a result of environmental pollution that the world needs to cope up with. The melting icebergs in Antarctica have resulted in the rising sea levels. Natural calamities such as frequent earthquakes, cyclones, etc., are all due to the havoc caused by the increased environmental pollution levels. Incidents of Hiroshima-Nagasaki and Chernobyl in Russia have led to the irreparable damage to the humankind.

In response to these disasters, every possible measure is being taken by the different countries in the world. More awareness programs are being organized to educate people about the hazards of environmental pollution and the need of protecting our planet. Greener ways of living are becoming popular. Energy-efficient bulbs, eco-friendly vehicles, use of solar and wind energy, are to name some.

Governments are also emphasizing on planting more trees, eliminating plastic products, better recycling of natural wastes, and minimal use of pesticides. This kind of organic lifestyle has helped us protect many plant and animal species from becoming extinct while making earth a greener and healthier place to live in.

Essay on Environmental Pollution: Types, Causes and Conclusion – Essay 5 (600 Words)

The presence of a substance in the environment which can be harmful to human beings, plants or animals is what we call as a pollutant and this occurrence is called environmental pollution. Environmental pollution is one of the most discussed, researched as well as ignored and abused by all of us in today’s age. We already know a lot about it, yet we intend to do very little to control it. Perhaps we have not yet felt the direct impact it has already had on our lives. For instance, just recently there has been a study by WHO which claims that the average life of a person residing in Delhi has been reduced by 10 years just because of the exposure to the harmful substances in which a person living in Delhi is forced to breathe. Simply said, environmental pollution, though a concern for the entire world, is yet to see concrete steps towards its control.

Types of Environmental Pollution:

Environmental pollution is usually thought to be a reference to air pollution. However, it is a general term used to refer pollution occurring in air, soil and water as well as other forms of pollution such as the ones caused due to heat, light, radioactive materials and noise.

Causes of Environmental Pollution:

Each type of environmental pollution has its own set of sources, some of which can be easily identified while some may not be direct sources of pollution, though they may trigger the same. For instance –

Industrial waste – The waste generated from different industries is a major cause of water, air and soil pollution. The chemical waste from industries contaminates the water to such an extent that there have been instances wherein some regions of the world, people suffer from specific diseases due to the presence of contaminated water around them. Also, smoke or harmful gases such as sulphur, nitrogen and carbon released as residues from the industries get mixed with air and contaminate it.

Vehicles – Use of vehicles has become rampant and there has been a massive growth in the last decade. Though the use of vehicles has benefited us in a larger way, the emissions from the vehicles have led to a massive increase in air pollution. In fact, many cities in the world have been forced to chalk out strategies such as odd and even, where vehicles ply on odd or even days based on their registration numbers just to curb the growing air pollution in such cities. Also, the immense use of petroleum fuels has led to the depletion of fossil fuels from the soil further depleting the resources available to mankind.

Agricultural Waste – Due to the ever-growing population, the demand for agricultural products has increased manifold. This has led to the rampant use of pesticides and chemicals in order to increase the productivity. However, this practice has its share of effects on the environment. For instance, the cotton belt of Punjab in India has been boon for the cotton industry, but at the same time, people living in this region have been found to suffer from different forms of cancer due to the large use of pesticides and chemicals in this area.


Population overgrowth and technology advancements have all led to the increase in demand for resources for optimum survival. However, we must not forget that the environment has been forced to pay a huge price for the same and we all should be responsible enough to do our bit in order to curb the ever-increasing environmental pollution or else, it may be difficult for future generations to even survive on this planet. Better methods such as the use of solar energy, wind energy and other ecologically safe technologies can surely be considered an an alternative in order to live in a healthy and pollution free environment.

Essay on Environmental Pollution: Factors and Measures Taken – Essay 6 (1000 Words)

India is the second most populous country in the World and home to over 1.3 trillion people. It is a land of gorgeous and spectacular landscapes, abundant natural resources, and one of the most sought after holiday destination. But the biggest concern of today’s time is the grave challenge of large-scale environmental pollution faced by the country. Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (EPIC) has stated India as the world’s second most polluted country in the world. The horrendous condition of environmental pollution in the country has resulted in the shortening the life of an average Indian’s by over four years. The Indian government has declared a state of emergency for environmental pollution in the urban areas.

Scientists from India’s most renowned cancer institute unconcealed awful statistics that approximately half of the school going children in Delhi are growing up with the irreversible lung impairment condition. The level of dangerous and toxic pollutants in the air, water and soil has gone way above the safe limit. Heavy industrialization, urbanization and some age old practices like burning agricultural waste have equally contributed to the miserable environment condition in India.

Factors of Environmental Pollution:

1. Air pollution:

New Delhi, the capital of India, made global headlines recently when it turned up in the top 10 most-polluted places on earth. Supreme Court of India has imposed a ban on old petrol and diesel vehicles in Delhi. Despite numerous efforts by the government to manage polluting emissions from the industries and use alternate traffic mechanisms, the air condition continues to deteriorate. The major sources of air pollution are traffic, power plants, industry, burning waste, cooking using wood and charcoal. Emission of greenhouse gasses poses a real time threat to the concentration of toxic elements in the air.

2. Soil pollution:

As the industrial sector in India is witnessing a prolific growth. As a result soil pollution is becoming a major concern in all parts of the country. Soil pollution poses an alarming threat to agricultural productivity, food safety, and human health. The area of fertile land is deteriorating every passing day by the use of chemicals for gaining better produce. The growth of cities in India has used soil as a sink for perpetually greater amounts of municipal waste. Cities like Bangalore & Chennai, famously called the IT hubs of the country are facing a grave issue of large amount of e-waste piled in the dump yards. Large amount of land is wasted as dumping grounds both within and at the outskirts of cities. These dumping grounds can be seen treated as pastures for cattle which can result in numerous health hazards.

3. Water pollution:

In India, we are not new to water pollution. Agriculture is the prime necessity for the country and apparently environmental impact on the climate has hugely affected the monsoons. Huge amount of waste, including metals like lead, toxic chemicals coming from Industries is dumped in rivers and water-bodies. The largest source of water pollution in India is the untreated sewage water. Some villages in India still practice defecation in the open which further pollutes the nearby water bodies. Ganga and Yamuna are ranked amongst the top 10 the most polluted rivers in the world.

4. Noise pollution:

Noise pollution is another burning issue of Modern India. Traffic congestion on roads, maddening sounds of honking horns, factory sirens, shuddering sound of the running of machines and loud sound of loudspeakers majorly contribute to the tremendous increase in noise pollution. Environmental pollution has resulted in the outbreak of so many health issues for an average Indian.

Measures taken:

India signed the historic Paris climate agreement on 24th November 2017 along with 170 Nations at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. India has committed itself to the effective implementation of the Paris agreement on climate change. Prime Minister of India Shri. Narendra Modi and French President Emmanuel Macron inaugurated Uttar Pradesh’s biggest solar power plant in Mirzapur district on 12th March 2018. India has also signed an agreement with Germany on technical cooperation under the Indo-German Energy Program – Green Energy Corridors (IGEN-GEC). The Indian government is taking serious steps to restore the sanctity of Ganga and Yamuna rivers by implementing the ‘Clean Ganga’, ‘Namami Gange’ and ‘Yamuna Cleaning Program’.

As plastic is a major pollutant, the State Government of Maharashtra has compete ban on plastics bags from 23rd June 2018. The notification issued by the Maharashtra state government banned manufacturing, usage, sale, circulation and storage of plastic materials such as bags, spoons, plates and other disposable items. The ban also includes packaging material and thermocol. However the plastic used for packaging of medicines and drugs, milk and treatment of solid waste is exempted from the ban. Stringent laws are enforced to control Noise pollution.

Various NGOs (Non-Government Organizations) are working day and night to educate the average Indians about the ill-effects of pollution on their mental and physical health. The Government is running rigorous campaigns through television, movies, print-media and other such outlets to encourage people to practice environmentally friendly lifestyle.


One cannot deny that the polluted environment in urban India is a ticking time bomb. Prolific industrialization for growth of the National economy has apparently put at risk even a breath of fresh air in the Indian cities. Lack of public participation in the implementation of stringent laws to fight environmental pollution is another huge concern. The public health in India is at serious risk. The Indian government is working to implement the solutions on a larger canvas, for example, switching to clean energy, regulations to reduce the emissions of harmful pollutants, and campaigning to spread acquaintance about the adverse effects of environmental pollution. The most significant aspect is encouraging the Indian people to give away their age-old practices which are by and large hazardous to the environment. The Sanskrit phrase “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” which means that ‘the world is like a family’, must come alive in the minds and hearts of each one of us to save this beautiful and serene land of traditions.

Essay on Environmental Pollution: Forms, Sources and Types – Essay 7 (1500 Words)


Pollution as defined by the dictionary is the introduction or presence in of a substance that is harmful or has poisonous effects on the environment. Pollution is further explained as the introduction into the natural environment contaminants that can cause an adverse change. To be basic, environmental pollution causes harm to the environment and which in turn brings harm to people in the environment.

Occurrence of Environmental Pollution:

The occurrence of environmental pollution is when the surrounding is contaminated by pollutants; this brings about some changes that adversely affect our regular lifestyles. The key components or elements of pollution are pollutants and they are majorly waste materials of very different forms. Pollution brings about a disturbance in the balance of the environment and the ecosystem. Development and modernisation have brought with them a sharp increase in pollution and this has given rise to various human illnesses and most importantly global warming.

Forms of Environmental Pollution:

There are many various forms of environmental pollution including water, air, radioactive, soil, heat, noise and light. For every form of pollution, there are two sources of pollution; the non point and the point sources. It is very easy to monitor, indentify and control the point sources of pollution while the non-point pollution sources are quite difficult and hard to control.

Causes and Sources of Environmental Pollution:

The sources and causes of environmental pollution consist of the following:

i. Industrial Activities:

Industries from all around the world even though they have brought affluence and prosperity have continually disturbed ecological balances and have probed the biosphere. The fall-outs of experiments, pall of smoke, industrial effluents and the swirling gases are a constant hazard to health, contaminating and polluting both water and air. The inappropriate disposal of industrial wastes has become a source of both water and soil pollution. The chemical wastes from the various industries can cause pollution to rivers, lakes, seas and also to soil and air through the release of fumes.

ii. Solid Waste Dumping:

Commercial and household wastes are sources of environmental pollution when the wastes are not disposed of properly.

iii. Vehicles:

Vehicles that use diesel and petrol emit smoke and also the smoke that is emitted by cooking coal pollutes our environment. The exponential growth in the number of vehicles on the roads has only aided the emission of smoke that when released spreads and eventually mixes with the air that we breathe. The smoke of these various vehicles is quite harmful and is the primary cause of air pollution. There is also the risk of sounds from these vehicles producing noise pollution.

iv. Rapid Industrialisation and Urbanisation:

The rapid rate of urbanisation and also industrialisation are major causes of environmental pollution because of the harm and death they bring to plant which causes harm to animals, humans and the ecosystem.

v. Population Overgrowth:

The rapid population increase especially in developing nations, the demand for occupation, basic food and shelter has been on the rise. Due to the high demand, deforestation has become rampant to help meet the growing demand of the population.

vi. Fossil Fuel Combustion:

The continual combustion of fuels of fossils is as source of pollution to the soil, the air and water through toxic gases like Carbon monoxide.

vii. Agricultural Wastes:

Pesticides and fertilizers that are used during agriculture are major sources of environmental pollution.

Types of Environmental Pollution:

Air Pollution:

This is probably the most dangerous and common form of environmental pollution and it has been seen to be synonymous with urbanisation. The primary reason for this is the high rate of fuel combustion. Fuel combustion is now a very basic requirement for transport, cooking and some other activities both domestically and industrially. All these activities release a large number of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere and are not removed from the air, affecting and threatening our existence.

Sulphur oxide is released into the air by the smoke and this makes the air very toxic. This is primary caused by smoke from factory stacks, chimneys, vehicles or even something very common like the burning of a log of wood. The emission of sulphur oxide and many other gases into the atmosphere leads to global warming with the capacity to lead to an acid rain. The emission of these greenhouse gases and the global warming it causes has led to droughts, erratic rains and increased temperatures worldwide. Conditions and ailments like Bronchitis, Asthma and the extremely dangerous case of lung cancer and this occurs majorly in the cities.

An example of one of the many sad examples of the calamities that can rise due to air pollution is the 1984 gas tragedy of Bhopal. The gas tragedy was a result of the release of a gas (methyl isocyanate) at a gas plant. About 2,000 people lost their lives in the tragedy and more than 200,000 people suffered from extensive respiratory problems. Respiratory illnesses, increase in asthma and cardiovascular diseases can be caused by an irritant (for example, particulates that are below 10 micrometers in size). Till this very moment, there are still birth defects in babies born and this has been attributed to the Bhopal Tragedy.

Water Pollution:

Water is essential for life; every living creature or being depends on water for survival. About 60% of all species live in water; this means that the pollution of water is a very important pollution type that has to be controlled. There are a lot of factors that contribute to water pollution, one very major contributing factor is industrial effluent disposed into rivers and seas and causing a large imbalance in the properties of water and this makes the bodies of water unfit for live. There are also a lot of diseases that are caused by water pollution and these diseases affect both non-aquatic and aquatic species.

Pesticides and insecticides that are sprayed on different plants is a source of pollution to the groundwater and also, oil spills in oceans have led to severe irreversible damage to the bodies of water. Another source of water pollution is eutrophication and it happens due to activities like the washing of utensils, clothes near rivers, ponds or lakes; the washing detergent moves into the water and inadvertently blocks the penetration of sunlight and this reduces the oxygen content of the water and makes it inhabitable.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) put forward that about 80% of marine environment pollution originates from sources like runoff. The pollution of water can have devastating effect on marine life. Citing an example, pathogens grow well with sewage, while inorganic and organic compounds that are in water can make the composition of water to change. If the level of dissolved oxygen is low, the water is considered to be polluted; dissolved oxygen is from the decomposition carried out on organic materials like sewage that are added to the water.

By harming aquatic creatures, water pollution contaminates the whole food chain by seriously causing harm to the humans that are dependent on the aquatic creatures. There has been a sharp increase in the number of diarrhoea and cholera cases everywhere.

Soil Pollution:

This is also called land pollution and it happens due to addition of chemicals that are not wanted to the soil caused by human activities. The use of pesticides and insecticides removes all the compounds of nitrogen from the soil thus making it highly unfit for the plants to get nutrients from. Deforestation, mining and waste release from industries also depletes the soil and this will inhibit the growth of plants and the soil will end up being eroded.

A significant part of solid waste is the industrial or commercial waste. Hazardous waste can be said to mean any solid, liquid or sludge form of waste that has properties which are dangerous or are potentially dangerous to the environment or human health. Hazardous wastes are generated in industries from pesticide manufacturing, petroleum refining, mining and a whole lot of other productions involving chemicals. Hazardous wastes are not solely generated by industries; households also generate waste that are hazardous like fluorescent lights, paints and solvents, aerosol cans, motor oil and ammunition.

Noise Pollution:

This is caused anytime there is a noise that has intensity higher than 85db and it reaches the bare ears. Noise pollution causes different psychological problems (e.g. hypertension and stress). It sometimes also causes a permanent impairment of hearing which is a very devastating thing. Noise pollution is largely caused by loud compressors and pumps in industries.

Radioactive Pollution:

This is believed to be one of the highly dangerous types of pollution because the effects are permanent. Nuclear waste disposed carelessly, accidents in nuclear plants, etc are all examples of radioactive pollution. Radioactive pollution can cause infertility as a result of exposure, cancer (blood and skin), blindness and various birth defects. It can also permanently alter the air, soil and water – which are the major life sources. It has been found to cause serious mutation in some species that can for ages propagate.

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