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Essay on Cancer

Essay on Cancer! Find high quality essays on ‘Cancer’ especially written in simple language for school and students. These essays will also guide you to learn about the history, symptoms, factors, types, causes, development, treatment, prevention and consequences of cancer.

Cancer is a disease which is related to the abnormal growth of cells in a particular part of the body. Since the last decade, cancer has become one of the most feared diseases of all times, particularly due to the difficult treatment one has to undergo and the limitations of the treatment in curing this disease during later stages of cancer.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for school and college students. Furthermore, those students preparing for IAS, IPS, UPSC, Civil Services and other competitive exams can also increase their knowledge by studying these essays.

List of Essays on Cancer

Essay on Cancer – Introduction, Types and Conclusion (Essay 1 – 150 Words)


Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases that can develop in almost anywhere in the body. Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Types of Cancer:

There are various types of cancer. They include:

1] Breast cancer: This is type of cancer that forms in the cells of the breast.

2] Prostate cancer: This is type of cancer that occurs in a man’s prostate. This is a small walnut sized gland that has the duty of producing seminal fluid.

3] Lung cancer: This is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs and this occurs mostly in people who smoke.

4] Leukemia: A cancer of blood forming tissues, hindering the body’s ability to fight infection.


We have seen various types of cancer but the types of cancer we have are hundreds but we had mentioned just a few. Each type of cancer comes with various symptoms and various ways of curbing it.

Essay on Cancer (Essay 2 – 250 Words)

Cancer is a disease that has been around for centuries, but it has never had such an impact on public health as it has now. Cancer is the increase in the number of cells in human beings at an abnormal rate. Doctors have been discussing the reasons behind this increase for the past fifty years. One is tempted to think that there are no reasons behind this occurrence and that it is just a natural phenomenon, people die all the time. Right?

The thing is that the number of cancer cases has increased in the past decades and a lot of this increase is attributed to the influence of different types of radiation. Even though most of the really dangerous substances (or sources of radiation) are not allowed near people. What else can be causing such an increase in cancer cases?

Some doctors have made a discovery regarding cancer that can really help us get rid of this problem. Following down the line of the argumentation presented in the famous “China Study” more doctors are advising their patients to change their diet because it can help  in their fight against cancer. Not only that but a proper diet can also be the best prevention.

When you are a student your metabolism is young so you do not feel the bad effect of your habits as much as older people do but as we age the side effects of our bad choices will become obvious. We can teach ourselves to listen to our bodies and to prevent cancer but to do that we, first of all, have to defeat our habits.

Essay on Cancer – For School Students (Essay 3 – 300 Words)


Cancer is uncontrolled and unchecked development of abnormal cells in a part of the body. Cancerous cells develop just like another cell in the body. They, however, keep growing and can form a mass then subsequently becomes tumors. Since cells are present in every part of our body, cancer can also grow in all parts of our body.

Causes of Cancer:

One great scientific mystery in our world is the cause of cancer. Scientists from all over have tried and failed in isolating any particular action, substance or environmental factors that can lead to cancer.

However, scientists all over the world agree that cancer is caused by substances known as carcinogens. These substances are introduced to the body when we are exposed to or consume materials containing them. One of the confirmed sources of carcinogens is exposure to radiation from x-ray machines.

Cancer Treatment:

There are various ways to treat a person infected with cancer. These modes of treatment are chosen depending on the type of cancer, the stage of development and the health peculiarities of the cancer patient. In other cases, several modes of treatment are combined to treat a single patient.

Some of the modes of treating cancer are in fly highlighted below:

1. Surgery to remove Cancerous tumors from the body.

2. Radiation therapy to reduce the growth of cells.

3. Chemotherapy for destroying cancer cells.

4. Stem cell transplant.

Prevention of Cancer:

Just as there are no agreed actions, materials and exposure that causes cancer, there are no generally accepted means of preventing cancer. However, there are certain habits that can limit a person’s exposure.

Some of them are highlighted below:

1. Healthy environment and diet.

2. Reduction of exposure from the sun.

3. Keep your weight low.

4. Avoid the use of tobacco.


Early detection of cancer has been hailed as the most potent way of treating this menace. Though scientists are still in the business of searching for a cure, we as humans can prevent cancer by regular medical check-ups.

Essay on Cancer – For Medical Students (Essay 4 – 400 Words)


Cancer is one of the second largest fatal illnesses across the world. One of the horrific words a human being can listen to is being diagnosed with Cancer. The word Cancer brings alarm and anxiety to the listener. Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in one part of the body which can even spread to other parts if not treated at an early stage. Neoplasms or tumour are the subset of these abnormally grown-up cells which often results in a mass or lump.

What causes Cancer?

Those agents which cause cancer are termed as Carcinogens. These can be classified into physical, chemical and biological. Physical Carcinogens include ultra violet and other ionizing radiations. Food adulterants such as aflatoxin, tobacco smoke, drinking water contaminant such as Arsenic, asbestos etc., are termed as Chemical Carcinogens. Viruses, Bacteria and other parasites which cause infections and eventually lead to Cancer are categorized under Biological Carcinogens. Ageing also causes cancer as the risk of the cellular repair mechanism weakens as we age.

Significant Symptoms of Cancer:

Some of the major symptoms of cancer include unexplained weight loss, extreme fatigue, persistent sores that do not heal, changes in the bladder and bowel movements, odd bleeding and discharges, change in voice due to cancer indication in larynx and lumps and bumps on the skin.

Preventive Measures:

Some of the risk factors which needs to be addressed to prevent cancer may include avoidance of tobacco, being overweight or obese, unhealthy eating with less vegetables and greens, physical in-activity, avoiding pollution etc. Apart from the mentioned, vaccination against HPV and Hepatitis B Virus, controlling hazards while at work, reducing exposure to ultra violet and ionizing radiation etc., can help prevent being infected by Cancer.


Assessing the type of cancer and the stage is very important because every cancer type has a different pattern of treatment from surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The treatment that is used to relieve the cancer patient from their pain and enhance the quality of life for the patients and their families is termed as Palliative care.


World Health Organization has partnered with UNO and other non-profit organizations to ensure every country is being made aware of the non-communicable diseases and the prevention of cancer and its control. Insights to develop Centers of Excellence to provide quality treatments and to conduct research on the carcinogenesis should be provided to governments and to help the people.

Essay on Cancer – For Science Students (Essay 5 – 500 Words)

The abnormal cell growth in our body which spreads to other parts as well is what is termed as cancer. Around four lakh of people in India are known to be affected by this disease every year. More so, around half of them are not able to survive as they are usually detected in the last stages of cancer. Hence it is all the more important to educate the people about this disease and its symptoms so that it can be detected early and the lives of the people suffering from it can be saved.

Types of Cancer:

Cancer can affect any body part. The part that is affected gives it the name, for instance, lung cancer which affects the lungs, skin cancer in which the skin is affected and so on. However, we can broadly divide cancer into four types. The first one is Sarcoma which is known to affect the blood vessels, bones, muscles cartilages and connective tissues. The second type of cancer is Carcinoma which affects the internal organs of the body or the skin. The third type is the Lymphoma. This cancer affects the lymph glands and the lymph nodes. The last type in which cancer can be categorised is Leukaemia which largely affects the parts forming blood such as the bone marrow.

Symptoms of Cancer:

Although no particular cause is known to trigger this disease, some activities have been associated as the cause of different types of cancer. The first and foremost is smoking. Excess smoking affects the entire respiratory system thereby leading to the onset of lung cancer. More so chewing tobacco is also attributed to giving rise to mouth and throat cancer. Similarly, alcohol is attributed to be the cause of stomach, liver and gallbladder cancer. Summarising it, all the ill habits of society and urbanisation have been attributed to this disease. Even radiations coming from X-ray machines can prove harmful and lead to cancer. That is why there are proper laws an protection in place when exposing people to these harmful radiations.

Treatments Available:

If detected in early stages, cancer can surely be curable. Surgery is one of the primary steps of curing this disease. If required, doctors remove the body part affected such as the uterus, gallbladder or the breast. Thereafter, through radiotherapy, the cancerous cells on the other affected parts of the body are killed so that they don’t spread to other parts. Chemotherapy is done using the strong chemical in order to kill the cancerous cells. Other methods such as tumour suppressing genes are used in different types of cancer as may be the need advised by the doctors. Whatever the method, it is extremely difficult to go through the pain and social stigma such as loss hair which comes alongside the treatment of cancer.

Living with this Disease:

It is indeed very difficult to live with this disease as not only this disease is not fully curable but the treatment is so tough that it scares even the toughest of individuals. We, as a society, must support the people suffering from cancer and help in their difficult times. We must not discriminate them and must understand that is already suffering a lot and must not do anything which further aggravates their sufferings.

Essay on Cancer (Essay 6 – 600 Words)

Cancer is a severe disease in which there is abnormal growth of cell that spreads around the human body. Many people in the world are struggling with this disease. Consistently around 10 million cases are analyzed. These number of cases are expected to increase around 20 million by 2020. It turns into the most widely recognized reasons for death. Due to abnormal cell growth, it develops & affects the overall body weight. Prolonged cough and abnormal bleeding are some symptoms of this severe disease. The developed abnormal cells first make their impact on organs then slowly moved as poison. Cancer disease can be identified in the beginning periods. The medical professionals are still trying to catch this disease.

Causes of Cancer:

One of the main causes of cancer is smoking. Other causes include tobacco, consumption of alcohol, obesity, lack of physical activities, exposure to UV radiations, etc. Age factor and changes in genes are yet other factors that cause cancer.

Types of Cancer:

Cancer has different types which can be divided into various forms:

i. Skin Cancer:

It is the most common type of cancer which can be seen in many people. Every year more than 1 million people are affected by skin cancer. Skin cancer happens due to the overexposure from the sun. The thicker ozone layers directly harms our skin, which increases the chances of skin cancer.

ii. Lung Cancer:

This type of cancer is related to the cells inside the lungs. The symptoms of this type of cancer are chest pain & sudden weight loss. It is also known as lung carcinoma. As a process of metastasis, the growth of abnormal cell growth spread inside the lungs. Smoking is a fundamental driver of Lung cases.

iii. Kidney Cancer:

Another name of kidney cancer is renal cancer. Renal Cell Carcinoma and Transitional Cell Carcinoma are the types of kidney cancer. This development of cancer happens after the age of 40 years. Smoking can twofold the danger of kidney malignant growth.

iv. Leukemia:

This cancer starts developing in the bone marrow, which leads to a high number of abnormal white cells. Acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia are the sorts of leukemia. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy can be used as the treatment for Leukemia.

Cancer Staging:

It is important to understand the staging factor of this severe disease. Diagnosis of cancer in early stages helps to tackle this disease by proper treatments. During the initial stages of cancer, proper surgeries or radiotherapy can help to overcome cancer. When the broken cancer cells move to other parts of the human body, then advance treatment is suggested by the professionals. But when a patient is in the final stages of cancer, he needs a treatment which covers his whole body. Chemotherapy is a therapy which is used to circulate the bloodstream. Professional doctors use various test techniques to identify the stages of cancer. Stages are used to describe the severity of cancer.

Prevention of Cancer:

In the initial stage, cancer can be prevented through medication, proper surgeries and light treatment. In the advance stages of cancer, chemotherapy and radiation therapy is useful. Above all, the best way to keep cancer away is to stay away from smoking and tobacco, eat healthy food and a lot of green vegetables, and do some physical exercise daily.


It is very difficult for a cancer patient to fight with the final stages of cancer. To deal with this severe problem cancer symptoms should never be ignored. More than 70% of cases are seen only due to smoking. At every stage, it is essential that everyone must adopt a healthy diet plan & exercise daily to prevent this disease. A person who has a good and healthy lifestyle can fight with cancer more strongly.

Essay on Cancer – Written in English (Essay 7 – 750 Words)


Current trends in global health mention cancer. Cancer is currently one of the leading causes of death globally. It is an illness in which abnormal cell growth develops and affects parts of the human body as it advances, it has the potential to spread from one part of the body to the other. It is a chronic illness that imposes a great economic burden on a nation because its management is costly. Cancer occurs in different parts of the body and are classified according to where it has affected. In India, men are mostly acted by lung, oral, lip and neck cancers whereas women are affected by cervical, breast and ovarian cancer. The detection procedure varies with the type of cancer while the treatment varies with the stage of the cancer progression. Mostly early stages of cancer have better prognosis compared to late stages of cancer.

Causes of Cancer:

There are modifiable and non-modifiable factors that predispose an individual to cancer. Non modifiable factors include age and genetics. With an increase in age, the rate of cancer incidence increases. The genetic predisposition to cancer increases the incidences of suffering the disease. Modifiable factors include lifestyle habits like drinking and smoking tobacco which increase the incidences of lung, oral, esophageal among other cancers. Diet is also a predisposing factor especially one that is less in vitamin supplements.

Physical inactivity and obesity predispose to cancers of the colon, breast and others. Sexual activity in women with multiple sexual partners predisposes them to cervical cancer due to the transmission of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus). The environment also predisposes to cancer because of the chemicals, radicals and radiations that interact with human beings.

Detection of Cancer:

The detection varies with the type of cancer and so screening is done for each type differently. It is advisable that people get regular checkups of the whole body so that early detection facilitates effective and curative treatment. Screening of cancer is done using detailed examination of the physique, laboratory and histology tests, radiological and magnetic imaging techniques among other methods.

The campaigns against cancer advocate for early detection by teaching the public on the early signs of cancer. In breast cancer awareness for example, the public is made aware of physical examination of the breast and if they detect any abnormal growth or lump, they are to seek further investigation. Early detection is important because it results in successful treatment. In the detection, the cancer staging is done, which is usually four stages, stage one, two, three and four. Stage one has the best prognosis whereas stage four has the poorest prognosis.

Treatment of Cancer:

Once cancer is detected, a range of treatment options is provided. Treatment depends on the types of cancer and the staging. It can be treated by surgery whereby excision of the abnormal growth is done. Surgery is done for non-hematological cancers and those that have not metastasized to other parts of the body. An example of surgery is mastectomy to treat breast cancer.

Chemotherapy is another treatment option that involves the administration of anticancer medication that eliminate the abnormal cells in the body. Another treatment option is radiation therapy that uses ionizing radiations to destroy cancer cells. Radiation is also used to make tumors small. It is used to treat solid tumors and it depends on the sensitivity of the tumor to the radiations. It is targeted at the nucleic acid destruction in the tumor cells.

Consequences of Cancer:

Cancer is a chronic illness that could result in very serious consequences even with treatment. Cachexia is the extreme wasting of the body that causes death in cancer patients. Economic burden to both the individual and the nation is experienced in cancer treatment because the treatment modalities are costly. The economic burden results in decline of the nation’s economy and increased healthcare costs to the population.

Mental illnesses result from cancer because it is a terminal illness and most patients become mentally unstable upon diagnosis. The quality of health is affected in a country when there is high incidences of cancer and the performance is greatly affected, which cause poverty and economic crisis for individuals.


Cancer is a serious illness that impacts the lives of people and the nation negatively. It is evident that cancer has diverse treatment options but the problem is that people do not go for checkups. Checkups are important in early detection, which usually results in successful treatment and less burden of cancer in a nation and in individuals.

Essay on Cancer – For IAS, Civil Services, UPSC, IPS and Other Competitive Exams (Essay 8 – 1000 Words)


Cancer is basically an agglomeration of various diseases that involves the abnormal growth of cells with the ability to spread or invade other body parts. Cancers are quite different from benign tumours in that the latter does not spread or invade other body parts. Some of the many symptoms and signs of cancer include abnormal bleeding, a lump, weight loss that is unusual, prolonged cough and bowel movement change. Even though these listed symptoms and signs of cancer, they might be caused by other things so it is necessary to be diagnosed. Today, we have more than 100 various kinds of cancer that affect us humans.

History of Cancer:

It is believed that cancer has been in existence for a majority if not all of the history of man. Breast cancer was the first form of cancer that was recorded and this happened around 1600 BC in Egypt. Between 460 BC and 370 BC, Hippocrates spent time analysing various types of cancer and referred to them as crayfish or crab. The name was as a result of the crab-like look of the malignant tumour and the lateral extension of the distended veins and tumours.

Factors Causing Cancer:

It has been discovered that the major cause of deaths as a result of cancer is the use of tobacco and it accounts for about 22 percent of the total number of deaths due to cancer. Poor diet, obesity, excessive alcohol consumption and a lack of exercise and physical activities accounts for another 10 percent of deaths caused by cancer. Some other causes and factors that contribute to cancer include environmental pollutants, ionizing radiation exposure and certain infections.

In most developing countries, infections like hepatitis B, Helicobacter pylori, papillomavirus infection of humans, Hepatitis C, HIV and Epstein Barr contribute to fifteen percent of all cancers. All of the factors listed above change the cell genes. There are always a lot of genetic changes before the development of cancer. About 10% of all cancers are as a result of genetic defects that are inherited from a parent. Asides the symptoms and signs that are used to detect cancer, screening tests are also a good way of detecting cancer. Cancer is normally thoroughly investigated using medical imaging; it is then confirmed through biopsy.

Development of Cancer:

A tumour or neoplasm is a collection of cells which have gone through growth that is not regulated and most times form a lump or mass. Every tumour cell exhibits the six important characters that are necessary for the production of the malignant tumour.

The six characteristics are:

1. Cell division and growth without all the signals that are proper.

2. Continuous division and growth even though the signals given are contrary.

3. Cell death that is usually programmed is avoided.

4. The divisions of the cell are quite limitless in number.

5. The construction of blood vessel is promoted.

6. The tissues are invaded and metastases are formed.

Cancer Prevention:

The prevention of a lot of cancers can be ensured by trying to maintain a weight that is healthy, not smoking, consuming a lot of whole grains, fruits and vegetable, avoiding the consumption of a lot of alcohol, reduction in the amount of red and processed meat that is consumed, getting vaccinated against some infectious diseases and the avoidance of too much exposure to sunlight. It is sometimes useful that there is early detection in cases of colorectal and cervical cancer and this can be achieved through screening. The usefulness of breast cancer screening is highly controversial.

The treatment of cancer is usually done by combining surgery, radiation therapy, targeted therapy and chemotherapy. A very important element of care is the management of symptoms and pain. In cases of advanced disease, palliative care is of utmost importance. The extent of the disease at the commencement of treatment and also the form of cancer that is involved go a long way to determine the odds of survival. Using the adopted survival rate at five years, children that were under the age of 15 when they were diagnosed have an average rate of survival of 80% in most developed countries. In the US, the average rate of survival for the five year period is 66%.

90.5 million  people were living with different cancers in 2015. It has been reported that every year, close to 15 million reports of new cancer cases are filed. These do not include the cases of skin cancer. Cancer results in more than eight million deaths every year which is about 15.7% of the total number of deaths every year.

In males, prostate cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer and colorectal cancer are the most widespread cancer types. In females, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer and lung cancer are the most widespread cancer types. Apart from melanoma, if we include skin cancer in the amount of new cases of cancer every year, it is going to be 40% of the total number of cases.

Brain tumours and lymphoblastic leukemia that is acute are the most widespread cancer types in children but in Africa, lymphoma that is no-Hodgkin is the most widespread. The total number of children that are under the age of 15 that ended up being diagnosed with one type of cancer or the other in 2012 is around 165,000.

With an increase in age, it has been seen that the risk of getting cancer also increases significantly and the number and occurrence of cases of cancer in developed countries in more than the number and occurrence of cancer cases in other countries. The change in lifestyle and increase in the number of people living to a very old age in countries that are developing contributes to the increase in the rate of the occurrence of cancer. Cancer is believed to have a financial cost of up to 1.16 trillion dollars every year.


Cancer can be extremely dangerous when it is not discovered early and when adequate and proper care and attention is not given to the treatment. Therefore it is very important to go for regularly screening to find out if there is need for caution or treatment.

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